MASTERING CHAPTER 12 Flashcards


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1

Which brain nucleus is the body's "biological clock"?

suprachiasmatic nucleus

2

Pyramidal tracts, also called direct pathways, originate in the primary motor cortex within the pre-central gyrus.

Pyramidal tracts

3

The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the

visceral sensory area

4

Which of the following hypothalamic control centers would you predict is the LEAST important for survival?

suprachiasmatic nucleus

EXAMPLE: This area of the hypothalamus is important in determining the circadian rhythm that sets our sleep-wake cycles

5

Which part of the brain is considered the "gateway" to the cerebral cortex?

thalamus

6

Which of the following is not a site where a tumor is likely to cause hydrocephalus?

pia mater

7

After Joe has a stroke, his doctor asks Joe to touch his right pointer finger to his chin—but Joe is unable to move his right hand. However, when the doctor stimulates Joe's pointer finger with a painful stimulus, Joe's muscles quickly move his hand away from the stimulus. The doctor concludes that

based on the doctor's observations, none of the listed answers are correct conclusions

8

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the

MEDULLA

9

Which type of white matter fiber tract connects the two cerebral hemispheres?

COMMISSURES

10

In general, information flows from sensory receptors to the appropriate primary sensory cortex.

TRUE

11

sensory neurons transmit sensory information from receptors to the spinal cord.

First-order

12

Which of the following areas of the brain controls voluntary movement of the eyes?

FRONTAL EYE FIELD

13

The primary auditory cortex is located in the

TEMPORAL LOBE

14

Spinocerebellar tracts carry appropriate sensory information, such as the degree of muscle stretch, to the cerebellum. The cerebellum uses such input to calculate skeletal muscle movements that allow for coordinated responses and the maintenance of balance.

coordination of skeletal muscle movements

15

Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the

THALAMUS

16

Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are

pyramidal and corticospinal

17

Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?

PREFRONTAL CORTEX

18

What cells line the ventricles of the brain?

EPENDYMAL CELLS

19

Which part of the brain is the "executive suite" for all brain activity?

CEREBRAL CORTEX

20

Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the

VESTIBULAR NUCLEI

21

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

ARACHNOID and PIA

22

Emotional state, rehearsal, association, and automatic memory are all factors that affect the transfer of information from short-term memory (STM) to long-term memory (LTM).

TRUE

23

During an epileptic seizure, the triggering of convulsions would not directly involve the uncontrolled activity of neurons located in the

THALAMUS

24

Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?

MEDULLA OBOLONGATA

25

The term cerebral dominance designates the hemisphere that is dominant for language.

TRUE

26

Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?

PROCEDURAL

27

Mrs. Sagalov has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. What clinical symptoms is she likely to show?

She will show increasing cognitive deficits, including difficulties with memory and attention, and personality changes such as irritability, moodiness, and confusion.

28

The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the

RECTICULAR FORMATION

29

An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in

PARAPLEGIA

30

The blood-brain barrier is effective against

metabolic waste such as urea

31

The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called

ASSOCIATION

32

Which parts of the brain constitute the "emotional brain" known as the limbic system?

cerebral and diencephalic structures

33

The central sulcus separates which lobes?

FRONTAL and PARIETAL

34

The central sulcus separates which lobes?

carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

35

carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

midbrain, medulla, and pons

36

Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area

can understand language, but have difficulty speaking

37

The is the most prominent example of commisural fibers—tracts that connect the left and right hemispheres.

corpus callosum

38

A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a

sulcu

39

The middle primary brain vesicle, the mesencephalon, gives rise to which adult brain structure?

midbrain

40

Which protective covering of the brain provides passageways for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to drain into the superior sagittal sinus?

ARACHNOID MATER

41

The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the

LATERAL SULCUS

42

is produced within the choroid plexi located within each ventricle.

Cerebrospinal fluid

43

Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the

UPPER MOTOR NEURONS

44

All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the

  • cingulate gyrus
  • caudate nucleus
  • amygdaloid nucleus
  • hippocampus