Psych Chapter 8 Flashcards


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1

The first question that a relative is likely to ask a new mother upon phoning her after she has given birth is

  1. “How are you feeling?”
  2. “Is it a boy or a girl?”
  3. “Is the baby healthy?”
  4. “How much did the baby weigh?”

“Is it a boy or a girl?”

2

Males and females are likely to evoke different responses from their companions

  1. from the first day of life
  2. as early as six months of age
  3. about the time they acquire a basic gender identity

d. once they achieve gender constancy

from the first day of life

3

Gender-typing refers to

  1. the inheritance of a set of sex chromosomes that determine one's gender
  2. the medical technique used to determine the sex of the fetus in utero
  3. the processes through which children acquire gender appropriate identities, values, and behaviors
  4. the process of classifying individuals on the basis of gender rather than personality

the processes through which children acquire gender appropriate identities, values, and behaviors

4

Each society considers certain values, motives, and behaviors more appropriate for members of one sex than for members of the other. These prescriptions are known as

  1. gender-role preferences
  2. gender-role identities
  3. gender-role standards
  4. gender schemas

gender-role standards

5

The dichotomy between instrumental roles (for men) and expressive roles (for women)

  1. is applicable only in Western societies
  2. is applicable only in Third World, preliterate cultures
  3. is widely held around the world
  4. is held nowhere in the egalitarian climate of the modern era

is widely held around the world

6

_____ provides a good illustration of the expressive gender-role.

  1. Women are expected to be good at reading but not at math
  2. Men are not supposed to cry or otherwise express emotion
  3. Women are expected to be cooperative and sensitive to others

d. Men are expected to show a greater need to express sexual urges than women

Women are expected to be cooperative and sensitive to others

7

Cross-cultural studies reveal that

  1. gender-role standards vary widely from culture to culture
  2. societies in which people live in small families are the ones that emphasize gender-typing the most
  3. in most societies, boys face stronger pressures to be "obedient," whereas girls face stronger pressures to be "self-reliant"
  4. many gender-role standards are similar from culture to culture

many gender-role standards are similar from culture to culture

8

Analyses of gender-typing across more than 100 cultures suggest that

  1. few societies encourage females to be self-reliant or males to be nurturant
  2. many gender-typed attributes (for example, self-reliance; nurturance) are encouraged of both sexes, but with different emphases on different attributes, depending on the child's sex
  3. the primary goal of socialization is to encourage children to acquire those attributes that will enable them to become contributing members of their society
  4. few societies encourage females to be self-reliant or males to be nurturant and many gender-typed attributes (for example, self-reliance; nurturance) are encouraged of both sexes, but with different emphases on different attributes, depending on the child's sex
  5. many gender-typed attributes (for example, self-reliance; nurturance) are encouraged of both sexes, but with different emphases on different attributes, depending on the child's sex and the primary goal of socialization is to encourage children to acquire those attributes that will enable them to become contributing members of their society

many gender-typed attributes (for example, self-reliance; nurturance) are encouraged of both sexes, but with different emphases on different attributes, depending on the child's sex and the primary goal of socialization is to encourage children to acquire those attributes that will enable them to become contributing members of their society

9

Mr. and Mrs. Harmon have two children, Jim and Jane. They tell Jim that he might grow up to be an engineer, since men are good at math, and that Jane might become a nurse, since women are empathic and thus well-suited for the caregiving profession. The Harmons' messages reflect what the text refers to as

  1. gender identities
  2. gender-role standards
  3. gender-role preferences
  4. gender-role stereotypes

gender-role stereotypes

10

Recent research (i.e., Prentice & Carranza, 2002) reveals that college students

  1. have largely rejected traditional gender-role stereotypes
  2. now think it acceptable for women to be intimidating and impatient
  3. now think it acceptable for men to be emotional and to seek social approval for their actions
  4. all of these
  5. none of these

none of these

11

Maccoby and Jacklin's review of the literature suggests that

  1. most gender-role stereotypes are reasonably accurate
  2. most gender-role stereotypes are overstated or incorrect
  3. gender-role stereotypes about males are much more accurate than those about females
  4. gender-role stereotypes about females are much more accurate than those about males

most gender-role stereotypes are overstated or incorrect

12

Among the gender-role stereotypes that appear to be accurate is that

  1. females are more verbally aggressive than males
  2. females are more suggestible than males
  3. males outperform females on tests of visual/spatial ability
  4. males are more analytical than females

males outperform females on tests of visual/spatial ability

13

Boys score higher than girls

  1. on tests of arithmetic reasoning
  2. on tests of computational skills
  3. on tests of math concepts
  4. all of these

on tests of arithmetic reasoning

14

Research suggests that girls score higher than boys in

  1. verbal aggression
  2. verbal abilities
  3. suggestibility
  4. all of these

verbal abilities

15

One sex difference that appears to be accurate is that

a. boys are more analytical than girls

b. girls are more sociable than boys

c. girls are more suggestible than boys

d. boys take more risks than girls do

boys take more risks than girls do

16

Research suggests that boys score higher than girls in

  1. self-esteem
  2. compliance with authority figures
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

self-esteem

17

If you were told that a particular child is highly sociable, not very good at logical tasks that require higher-level cognitive processing, and low in achievement motivation, you could confidently assume

  1. that the child is a boy
  2. that the child is a girl
  3. that the child is a female if the child were also found to be quite suggestible
  4. nothing about the gender of the child

nothing about the gender of the child

18

What conclusion can be drawn regarding the magnitude of sex differences?

  1. sex differences are quite substantial on some characteristics
  2. gender accounts for almost 50% of the variation in children’s behavior
  3. a child’s math ability, fearfulness, and aggressiveness can be predicted by knowing the child’s gender
  4. all of the above
  5. sex differences are typically quite small; males and females are more psychologically similar than different

sex differences are typically quite small; males and females are more psychologically similar than different

19

The major qualification about findings on sex differences is that

  1. the data indicate group differences and tell us nothing about individuals
  2. the findings are limited to a few, potentially nonrepresentative samples
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

the data indicate group differences and tell us nothing about individuals

20

The better documented sex differences in cognitive abilities appear to be

  1. limited to middle-class samples
  2. increasing as more women enter the work force
  3. dependent to some extent on cultural influences
  4. more true of African-American than of White samples

dependent to some extent on cultural influences

21

Gender differences have not been found consistently in

  1. activity level
  2. emotional expressivity
  3. compliance with authority
  4. social interest

social interest

22

One generally accepted idea about sex differences that is not supported by the research literature is that boys

  1. are more active than girls
  2. outperform girls on tests of concept formation and probability learning
  3. outperform girls on tests of arithmetic reasoning
  4. are outperformed by girls on tests requiring verbal skills

outperform girls on tests of concept formation and probability learning

23

Which of the following sex differences appears to be most accurate?

a. girls lack achievement motivation

b. girls are better at simple repetitive tasks

c. boys are less conforming and less suggestible than girls

d. boys have higher self-esteem than girls do

boys have higher self-esteem than girls do

24

Despite evidence to the contrary, inaccurate gender-role stereotypes persist because

  1. people tend to note and recall instances in which males and females conform to these stereotypes
  2. counterstereotypic behavior is likely to be distorted in ways to make it more consistent with the perceiver’s stereotypes
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

25

8-year-old Saul heard a story in which a female physician told her patient that the operation was a success and that he would soon recover. On retelling this story to his parents, Saul is likely to say that

  1. it was boring
  2. the nurse told the patient that everything was going to be OK
  3. "I want to be a doctor when I grow up"
  4. the lady doctor fixed the man up so he will recover

the nurse told the patient that everything was going to be OK

26

Suppose that a 7-year-old is visiting a neighbor's house where the father, Mr. Jones, is cooking dinner. The child incorrectly reports to his/her mother that Mr. Jones was fixing the stove. Such distortions of recall have been found to be

  1. unusual; it should be very striking and memorable to observe the father rather than the mother cooking
  2. unusual; 7-year-olds tend to be very accurate in their recall of both gender-consistent and gender-inconsistent behaviors
  3. common; children often recall gender-inconsistent information incorrectly
  4. common; 7-year-olds do not yet have a schema for gender appropriateness and simply do not notice the gender of the individual performing an activity

common; children often recall gender-inconsistent information incorrectly

27

Research examining the accomplishments of males and females reveals that

  1. females lack the mathematical talent to excel in math and science
  2. females are better suited than males for careers requiring verbal skills
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

none of these

28

Studies have shown that by _____ both genders judge females as less competent than males in arithmetic.

  1. age 2
  2. preschool and the early elementary grades
  3. middle school/junior high
  4. high school

preschool and the early elementary grades

29

Evidence cited in the text regarding the influence of parents and teachers in promoting gender-stereotyped attitudes about achievement indicates that _____ have different expectations and/or respond differently to boys and girls.

  1. parents
  2. teachers
  3. both parents and teachers
  4. neither parents nor teachers

both parents and teachers

30

Jacquelynne Eccles and her associates have conducted research which implies that

  1. gender-role stereotypes create self-fulfilling prophecies that promote sex differences in cognitive performance
  2. biological differences between the sexes are most responsible for sex differences in cognitive performance
  3. parents and teachers think grade-school girls must try harder than boys in math because girls perform worse in math during the early grades than boys do
  4. the large underrepresentation of males in professions requiring verbal skills reflects males' relative lack of verbal ability
  5. biological differences between the sexes are most responsible for sex differences in cognitive performance and the large underrepresentation of males in professions requiring verbal skills reflects males' relative lack of verbal ability

gender-role stereotypes create self-fulfilling prophecies that promote sex differences in cognitive performance

31

Recent research implies that girls may perform worse than boys in such subjects as math and science in part because

  1. they lack talent in these domains
  2. they invest themselves broadly across many academic domains, without

becoming exceptionally proficient in any domain

  1. their teachers believe that boys are more talented and assign boys higher

grades for same levels of performance

  1. all of these

they invest themselves broadly across many academic domains, without

becoming exceptionally proficient in any domain

32

Gender-stereotypes are less likely to undermine the achievement expectancies and academic performances of girls in math when girls _____.

  1. are taught by female math instructors
  2. have parents who are nontraditional in their gender-role attitudes and behaviors
  3. are only children or have older sisters
  4. can complete homework assignments without assistance

have parents who are nontraditional in their gender-role attitudes and behaviors

33

One sign that gender stereotypes may be having less influence in recent years on girls’ academic performance in math and science is that _____.

  1. high school girls in some studies value math as much as boys do and view themselves just as competent at math as boys
  2. the percentages of women earning advanced degrees in science, engineering, and medicine has increased dramatically
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

34

Children first place males and females into different "categories"

a. by 6 months of age, on the basis of vocal cues

b. by 6 months of age, on the basis of hairstyles

c. by 9-12 months of age, on the basis of vocal cues

d. by 9-12 months of age, on the basis of hairstyles

by 6 months of age, on the basis of vocal cues

35

The visual cues that 9-12-month-olds use to treat males and females as

categorically distinct are _____ ; _____ .

  1. clothing; dresses versus pants
  2. hairstyles; long hair versus short hair
  3. enactment of gender-typed behaviors; comforter versus playmate
  4. genitalia; penis versus vagina

hairstyles; long hair versus short hair

36

By age 2 1/2 to 3 years, children

  1. know whether they are boys or girls
  2. know that gender is a permanent attribute
  3. know most traditional gender-role stereotypes
  4. are aware that males have penises and females do not
  5. all of these

know whether they are boys or girls

37

Mary thinks of herself as a male and prefers masculine activities. Mary’s biological sex thus differs from her

  1. gender-role stereotypes
  2. gender identity
  3. gender constancy
  4. all of these

gender identity

38

One’s gender identity includes

  1. the knowledge “I am a boy/girl”
  2. the knowledge “I will always be a boy/girl”
  3. the judgment “I am contented/non contented with my biological sex
  4. the knowledge “I am a boy/girl” and the knowledge “I will always be a boy/girl”
  5. all of these

all of these

39

Some knowledge of gender-role stereotypes first appears _____, and by _____, children agree that males and females differ on important psychological dimensions.

  1. at age 2 1/2 to 3; age 4 to 5
  2. at age 4 to 5; age 10 to 11
  3. at age 10 to 11; early adolescence
  4. at age 2 1/2 to 3; age 10 to 11

at age 2 1/2 to 3; age 10 to 11

40

Children first begin to show some awareness of gender-role stereotypes

  1. by the end of the first year
  2. by the time they acquire object permanence
  3. about the time they acquire gender constancy
  4. about the time they acquire a basic gender identity

about the time they acquire a basic gender identity

41

When children begin to draw sharp distinctions between the sexes on psychological dimensions, they first learn

  1. positive traits that characterize their own gender and negative traits that characterize the other gender
  2. negative traits that characterize their own gender and positive traits that characterize the other gender
  3. positive traits that characterize each gender
  4. negative traits that characterize each gender

positive traits that characterize their own gender and negative traits that characterize the other gender

42

The gender-role stereotypes held by 3- to 7-year-olds are

  1. more flexible than those of older children
  2. inconsistent from day to day
  3. rigid and inflexible
  4. inflexible with respect to personal mannerisms but flexible with respect to the occupations that males and females might pursue

rigid and inflexible

43

Compared to their earlier viewpoints on gender-role violations, older (i.e., 8- to 10-year-old) children become _____ about such violations, particularly those undertaken by _____.

  1. more flexible; girls
  2. more flexible; boys
  3. more critical; girls
  4. more critical; boys

more flexible; girls

44

Grade-school children are likely to be most critical of _____ .

  1. a girl who likes to play baseball
  2. a girl who aspires to be an electrician
  3. a boy who wears a dress
  4. a boy who aspires to be a nurse

a boy who wears a dress

45

Compared to 8- to 10-year-olds from individualistic societies, 8- to 10-year-olds from Taiwan (a collectivist society) are _____ about gender-role violations because _____.

  1. less flexible; of the strong prescription that people in collectivist societies conform to social expectations
  2. less flexible; Taiwanese treat gender-role prescriptions as moral rules
  3. more flexible; behaviors that promote group welfare are approved of, regardless of their correspondence to traditional gender roles
  4. more flexible; there are fewer gender-role prescriptions in egalitarian Taiwanese society

less flexible; of the strong prescription that people in collectivist societies conform to social expectations

46

A second round of gender chauvinism appears in _____ as young people experience _____.

  1. adolescence; gender segregation
  2. adolescence; gender intensification
  3. young adulthood; gender intensification
  4. young adulthood; role requirements associated with marriage

adolescence; gender intensification

47

Gender intensification occurs during _____ and is thought to most clearly reflect _____ .

  1. middle childhood; peer pressure to behave appropriately for one’s sex
  2. middle childhood; fathers becoming more involved with sons and mothers becoming more involved with daughters
  3. adolescence; peer pressure to conform and to succeed socially with members of the other sex
  4. adolescence; academic pressures to pursue curricula that are most appropriate for one’s sex

adolescence; peer pressure to conform and to succeed socially with members of the other sex

48

Research on the development of gender-typed play reveals that

  1. a preference for gender-typed toys develops soon after children have

established a basic gender identity

  1. three-year-old boys are already more sociable with male than with female playmates
  2. two-year-old girls are already more sociable with female than with male playmates
  3. a preference for gender-typed toys develops soon after children have

established a basic gender identity and two-year-old girls are already more sociable with female than with male playmates

  1. three-year-old boys are already more sociable with male than with female playmates and two-year-old girls are already more sociable with female than with male playmates

three-year-old boys are already more sociable with male than with female playmates and two-year-old girls are already more sociable with female than with male playmates

49

Sex differences in play patterns and a clear preference for same-sex peers have been found to

  1. not be clearly evident until the late elementary school years
  2. emerge after starting school
  3. first be evident in the play of preschoolers (about 4-5 years of age)
  4. be evident in toddlers (18 months-3 years of age) and to increase throughout the elementary school years

be evident in toddlers (18 months-3 years of age) and to increase throughout the elementary school years

50

Whiting and Edwards studied children in 12 different cultures with respect to their preferences for same-sex playmates. They found

  1. most cultures do not show the marked same-sex playmate preference seen in the U.S.
  2. that the same-sex playmate preference is common, but typically declines during childhood
  3. that the same-sex preference is common and increases during childhood
  4. markedly varying degrees of preference across cultures

that the same-sex preference is common and increases during childhood

51

Among 10- to 11-year-olds, popular children are likely to

  1. avoid extensive contacts with members of the other sex
  2. have close friends of each sex
  3. have made early entry into a romantic relationship
  4. all of these

avoid extensive contacts with members of the other sex

52

Jacklin and Maccoby observed the play of pairs toddlers. They found the same-sex pairs were

  1. more lively and positive than opposite-sex pairs
  2. less lively and more withdrawn than opposite-sex pairs
  3. more lively but less aggressive than opposite-sex pairs
  4. less lively and less aggressive than opposite-sex pairs

more lively and positive than opposite-sex pairs

53

According to Jacklin and Maccoby, preschool children prefer same-sex playmates because

  1. boys and girls rarely want to play at the same activities
  2. boys and girls have incompatible play styles
  3. parents encourage boys to play with boys and girls to play with girls
  4. boys simply dislike girls and quickly withdraw when paired with a girl playmate

boys and girls have incompatible play styles

54

Gender segregation appears to be stronger among ____.

  1. boys than among girls
  2. girls than among boys
  3. children who hold more stereotyped views of the sexes
  4. adolescents than grade-school children

children who hold more stereotyped views of the sexes

55

Developmental trends in gender-typed activities reveal that

  1. boys are quicker than girls to develop a preference for gender-typed toys
  2. girls are quicker than boys to develop a preference for gender-typed toys
  3. by middle childhood (ages 4-10), neither boys nor girls have much interest in cross-sex toys and activities
  4. boys are quicker than girls to develop a preference for gender-typed toys and by middle childhood (ages 4-10), neither boys nor girls have much interest in cross-sex toys and activities
  5. girls are quicker than boys to develop a preference for gender-typed toys and by middle childhood (ages 4-10), neither boys nor girls have much interest in cross-sex toys and activities

boys are quicker than girls to develop a preference for gender-typed toys

56

Boys face stronger pressures than girls to adhere to "gender-appropriate" codes of conduct because

  1. parents are quicker to discourage the cross-sex activities of their sons than their daughters
  2. parents perceive a wider range of activities as appropriate for girls than for boys
  3. tomboyism is tolerated to some extent, whereas "sissyish" behavior is not
  4. all of these

all of these

57

_____ have less gender-stereotyped attitudes than _____.

  1. middle-class adolescents; agemates from the lower socioeconomic strata
  2. African American children; European American children
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

58

African American children may have a less stereotyped view of the sexes than

White children do because

  1. African American fathers are less stereotyped in their caregiving

routines, parenting much like African American mothers do

  1. a greater percentage of African-American mothers are enacting the

instrumental role by working and functioning as single parents

  1. both of these
  2. none of these

both of these

59

Children from “countercultural” homes in which parents strive to promote egalitarian sex-role attitudes are _____ than children from traditional homes.

  1. less gender-stereotyped in their gender-role beliefs
  2. less gender-typed in their toy and activity preferences
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

less gender-stereotyped in their gender-role beliefs

60

Until the age of 9 or 10, children believe that the gender-typed preferences that males and females display are

  1. attributable to social forces--the ways in which boys and girls are raised
  2. attributable to a child's status as a biological male or a biological female
  3. attributable to an interaction between biological forces and social influences
  4. flexible prescriptions that are a matter of personal choice

attributable to a child's status as a biological male or a biological female

61

Proponents of evolutionary theory believe that _____.

  1. sex differences are largely a reflection of natural selection processes
  2. different biologically evolved characteristics in males and females are ultimately responsible for gender-based divisions of labor
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

62

_____ comes closest to adopting an essentialist perspective on gender-typing.

  1. Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory
  2. modern evolutionary theory
  3. Halpern’s psychobiosocial theory
  4. the behavioral genetics perspective on development

modern evolutionary theory

63

Proponents of the social-roles hypothesis criticize modern evolutionary theorists for ignoring _____ in their theory of gender-typing.

  1. hormonal influences on development
  2. gender segregation and peer influences
  3. sex differences that are consistent across cultures

d. socially assigned roles and differential childrearing for males and females

socially assigned roles and differential childrearing for males and females

64

Critics of the evolutionary theory of gender-typing point to ____ as the primary reason that males and females display some behavioral and psychological differences.

  1. natural selection of different genes for males and females
  2. differences in socially assigned roles
  3. differences in sex hormones
  4. differences in physical stature and musculature

differences in socially assigned roles

65

In Money and Ehrhardt's biosocial theory of gender-typing, the first critical

event in gender-role development is _____ , an event which ensures that _____.

  1. the inheritance of an X or a Y chromosome from the father; the fetus will develop ovaries (with an X chromosome) or testes (with a Y chromosome)
  2. the inheritance of an X or a Y chromosome from the mother; the fetus will develop ovaries (with an X chromosome) or testes (with a Y chromosome)
  3. the development of testes or ovaries; the fetus will develop a penis and scrotum (if testes have formed) or a clitoris and labia (if ovaries have formed)
  4. the development of male or female external genitalia; males will be raised as males and females will be raised as females

the inheritance of an X or a Y chromosome from the father; the fetus will develop ovaries (with an X chromosome) or testes (with a Y chromosome)

66

Those who believe that hormones contribute to sex differences often point

to the testicular feminization syndrome, a condition in which

  1. prenatal exposure to male sex hormones causes females to develop external genitalia resembling a penis and a scrotum
  2. males inherit a condition in which they are insensitive to male hormones and will develop external genitalia resembling those of a female
  3. prenatal exposure to female sex hormones causes males to develop external genitalia resembling those of a female
  4. male animals castrated soon after birth come to exhibit feminine behavioral characteristics such as receptive sexual posturing as adults

males inherit a condition in which they are insensitive to male hormones and will develop external genitalia resembling those of a female

67

If we learn that a genetic (XY) male was born with the external genitalia of a female, we would immediately suspect

  1. testicular feminization syndrome (TFS)
  2. adrenogenital syndrome (AGS)
  3. interference in gender differentiation from mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS)
  4. that the messenger has been reading science fiction

testicular feminization syndrome (TFS)

68

According to Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory, the most important influence on gender-typing from birth throughout childhood is _____.

  1. the child’s sex chromosomes (XX or XY)
  2. the way the child is labeled and treated by others
  3. the child’s balance of androgens and estrogens
  4. the child’s biologically evolved behavioral characteristics

the way the child is labeled and treated by others

69

Those who suspect genetic contributions to sex differences and gender-role

differentiation point to

  1. the fact that males, who have but one X chromosome, are more susceptible to X-linked recessive disorders that produce developmental abnormalities
  2. the fact that those who reach puberty late, on a timetable influenced by our genotypes, tend to perform better on visual/spatial tests
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

70

The "timing of puberty" effect

  1. accounts for gender differences in activity levels and aggression
  2. refers to the fact that females reach puberty sooner than males do
  3. refers to the tendency of those who reach puberty early to perform better on visual/spatial tasks than those who mature late
  4. refers to the tendency of those who reach puberty relatively late to perform better on visual/spatial tasks than those who mature early

refers to the tendency of those who reach puberty relatively late to perform better on visual/spatial tasks than those who mature early

71

One argument against a genetic interpretation of sex differences in

visual/spatial skills is that_____ is a better predictor of visual/spatial test performances of both boys and girls than timing of puberty is.

  1. previous involvement in spatial activities
  2. having a masculine self-concept
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

72

Research on biological contributions to sex differences reveals that

  1. biological sex is an inherited attribute
  2. our masculine and feminine self-concepts are influenced by the genes we have inherited
  3. masculinity is more heritable than femininity
  4. all of these

all of these

73

One observation consistent with a genetic interpretation of gender typing is that

  1. preschoolers’ toy and activity preferences are affected, in part, by their

genotypes

  1. girls who are heavily exposed to make sex hormones before they are born

often display masculine toy and activity preferences

  1. both of these
  2. none of these

preschoolers’ toy and activity preferences are affected, in part, by their

genotypes

74

Behavioral genetics research reveals that the major reason that people differ in masculinity and femininity is that

  1. they differ in their concentrations of androgen and testosterone
  2. they inherit different chromosomes; males inherit Y chromosomes and females inherit X chromosomes
  3. they inherit different genotypes
  4. they grow up in different environments

they grow up in different environments

75

An androgenized female is one who

  1. has an extra X chromosome
  2. has an extra Y chromosome
  3. has been exposed prenatally to male sex hormones
  4. is insensitive to the effects of testosterone

has been exposed prenatally to male sex hormones

76

Androgenized females _____.

  1. often display strong interests in masculine activities
  2. have developed a large number of both masculine and feminine attributes
  3. provide some support for the notion that elevated concentrations of male sex hormones influence the activity preferences of human females
  4. often display strong interests in masculine activities and provide some support for the notion that elevated concentrations of male sex hormones influence the activity preferences of human females
  5. all of these

often display strong interests in masculine activities and provide some support for the notion that elevated concentrations of male sex hormones influence the activity preferences of human females

77

Recent research with girls displaying congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is consistent with Money and Ehrhardt’s notion that _____.

  1. prenatal exposure to cross-sex hormones influences the behavior of animals but not humans
  2. women can be socialized to overcome hormonal influences
  3. prenatal exposure to androgen may promote the development of masculine interests and behaviors
  4. only males are influenced much by prenatal exposure to androgen

prenatal exposure to androgen may promote the development of masculine interests and behaviors

78

Money's work with androgenized girls implied that there may be a critical period between _____ for the establishment of a gender identity.

  1. 6 months - 2 years of age
  2. 12-18 months of age
  3. 18 months - 3 years of age
  4. 3-5 years of age

18 months - 3 years of age

79

Strong evidence against Money's critical period for the establishment of gender identity comes from observations that

  1. gender reassignment for AGS females is easily accomplished anytime prior to adolescence
  2. TFS boys who had been raised as girls typically assume a masculine identity shortly after puberty
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

TFS boys who had been raised as girls typically assume a masculine identity shortly after puberty

80

Perhaps the most important lesson learned from the gender-typing of persons with genital abnormalities is that

  1. we are biologically predisposed to develop as males or females
  2. how we are raised has an important influence on gender typing
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

81

Margaret Mead’s (1935) observations of gender-roles in three New Guinea tribes suggest that

  1. males and females are biologically programmed for different kinds of attributes and behaviors
  2. gender-role socialization plays a crucial role in determining a child’s gender-role preferences and behaviors
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

gender-role socialization plays a crucial role in determining a child’s gender-role preferences and behaviors

82

The central premise of Money and Ehrhardt's biosocial theory of gender-role

development is that

  1. biology is more important than socialization at determining the outcomes of gender-typing
  2. socialization is more important than biology at determining the outcomes of gender-typing
  3. biological and social forces interact to determine the outcome of gender-typing
  4. none of these

biological and social forces interact to determine the outcome of gender-typing

83

Diane Halpern's psychobiosocial viewpoint extends Money and Ehrhardt's

biosocial theory by proposing that

  1. the different socializing experiences that young boys and girls receive influences the structure of male and female brains
  2. prenatal exposure to testosterone affects the course of fetal brain development
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

the different socializing experiences that young boys and girls receive influences the structure of male and female brains

84

One contribution of the recent psychobiosocial theory of development is to illuminate a process by which _____.

  1. biological and social factors interact to influence development
  2. genes influence verbal and visual-spatial skills
  3. hormones influence girls’ activity preferences
  4. establishment of psychological masculinity/femininity influences reactions to hormonal changes that occur at puberty

biological and social factors interact to influence development

85

According to Freud, the major contributor to gender-typing is

  1. parents' differential reinforcement of gender-appropriate and gender- inappropriate behaviors
  2. children's patterning themselves after the same-sex parent
  3. observational learning
  4. hormonal influences

children's patterning themselves after the same-sex parent

86

According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory of gender-typing, boys become gender-typed as they _____ with the father as a means of overcoming their

_____ .

  1. empathize; castration anxiety
  2. identify; penis envy
  3. identify; castration anxiety
  4. compete; incestuous desire for their mothers
  5. compete; penis envy

identify; castration anxiety

87

An observation that contradicts Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of gender-typing is that

  1. children are not necessarily psychologically similar to either parent
  2. boys identify more strongly with fathers who are warm and nurturant than with punitive ones
  3. preschool children are often not very knowledgeable about male and female genitalia
  4. all of these
  5. none of the above; these observations all support Freud’s ideas

all of these

88

According to social learning theorists, the child's earliest preferences for gender-typed activities

  1. are innate
  2. result from the tendency of parents and other companions to encourage "gender-appropriate" behaviors while discouraging acts they consider "gender-inappropriate"
  3. result from the child's selective attention to same-sex models
  4. result from the child's tendency to imitate the powerful parent

result from the tendency of parents and other companions to encourage "gender-appropriate" behaviors while discouraging acts they consider "gender-inappropriate"

89

_____ theorists view differential reinforcement of gender-typed behaviors as the primary contributor to gender-typed toy preferences and the child's basic gender identity.

  1. biosocial
  2. psychoanalytic
  3. social-learning
  4. cognitive-developmental
  5. gender schema

social-learning

90

Parents who show the clearest pattern of differential reinforcement with regard to gender-typed behaviors have children who are relatively quick

  1. to label themselves as boys or girls
  2. to develop strong gender-typed toy and activity preferences
  3. to acquire knowledge about gender-role stereotypes
  4. all of these

all of these

91

Four-year-old Larry likes to play with dolls. Which of the following individuals is likely to be most concerned about this cross-sex play?

  1. Larry's mother
  2. Larry's father
  3. Larry's older sister
  4. Larry's nursery school teacher

Larry's father

92

One problem with the social learning theory of gender-typing is that

  1. parents don’t begin to encourage gender-typed activities until after the child acquires a basic gender identity
  2. peers are likely to model and encourage cross-sex play
  3. children do seem to identify with and develop personalities similar to that of the same-sex parent
  4. children younger than 6 or 7 do not attend selectively to same-sex models

children younger than 6 or 7 do not attend selectively to same-sex models

93

If a 4- to 5-year-old boy sees a girl model enjoying herself with a novel "boy" toy, he will _____ that toy, thus contradicting _____ assumption about the importance of same-sex modeling influences to early gender-typing.

  1. play with; Bandura's
  2. play with; Kohlberg's
  3. shun; Bandura's
  4. shun; Kohlberg's

play with; Bandura's

94

_____ would challenge the social-learning assertion that selective attention to same-sex models is an important determinant of gender-typing during the preschool period.

  1. children’s play preferences reflect the label attached to the toy (“boys’” “girls’”) rather than the sex of the child who models the toy
  2. children with cross-sex siblings have less gender-typed activity preferences than those who have only same-sex siblings
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

95

Research on the influence of gender-role stereotyping on television reveals

that

  1. only boys are influenced by viewing stereotyped gender-role portrayals
  2. viewing stereotyped gender-role portrayals is associated with stereotyped gender-role attitudes in both boys and girls
  3. only girls are influenced by viewing stereotyped gender-role portrayals
  4. television portrayals of gender roles are not related to children's

gender-role attitudes

viewing stereotyped gender-role portrayals is associated with stereotyped gender-role attitudes in both boys and girls

96

The ways in which the sexes are portrayed in the media

  1. fosters stereotyped gender-role attitudes in children
  2. fosters gender-typed toy and activity preferences
  3. actually promotes more equalitarian gender-role attitudes in our modern era
  4. fosters stereotyped gender-role attitudes in children and fosters gender-typed toy and activity preferences
  5. none of the above; media portrays have few if any implications for gender-typing

fosters stereotyped gender-role attitudes in children and fosters gender-typed toy and activity preferences

97

With regard to gender-typing and gender-role development, all social-learning theorists could be criticized for

  1. overemphasizing the role of hormonal influences
  2. ignoring the child's own contributions to sex-typing
  3. denying that peers play an important role in the sex-typing process
  4. placing too little emphasis on the role of differential reinforcement

ignoring the child's own contributions to sex-typing

98

According to Kohlberg’s theory of gender-role development

  1. one’s gender identity is a cognitive judgment about the self
  2. gender consistency results from one’s selective attention to same-sex models
  3. children actively socialize themselves into gender roles
  4. one’s gender identity is a cognitive judgment about the self and gender consistency results from one’s selective attention to same-sex models
  5. one’s gender identity is a cognitive judgment about the self and one’s gender identity is a cognitive judgment about the self and gender consistency results from one’s selective attention to same-sex models

one’s gender identity is a cognitive judgment about the self and one’s gender identity is a cognitive judgment about the self and gender consistency results from one’s selective attention to same-sex models

99

The stage of gender identity at which a girl first recognizes that she can never become a father is

  1. basic gender identity
  2. gender consistency
  3. gender stability
  4. "in group--out group" schematization

gender stability

100

The achievement of gender consistency

  1. makes cross-sex activities less threatening
  2. marks the point at which children attend selectively to same-sex models
  3. concludes the process of gender-typing
  4. makes cross-sex activities less threatening and concludes the process of gender-typing
  5. all of these

marks the point at which children attend selectively to same-sex models

101

What aspect of Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of gender-typing has not received support?

  1. the view that a mature understanding of gender is necessary for gender-typing
  2. the view that understanding of gender is related to cognitive development
  3. the view that there are stages of gender identity development
  4. the view that children with more mature gender concepts tend to seek out and attend to same-sex models
  5. the view that a mature understanding of gender is necessary for gender-typing and the view that children with more mature gender concepts tend to seek out and attend to same-sex models

the view that a mature understanding of gender is necessary for gender-typing

102

A major problem with Kohlberg's theory of gender-typing is that

  1. gender-typing begins long before children reach gender consistency
  2. children younger than 6 or 7 do not attend selectively to same sex models
  3. there is little evidence that children progress through the stages of gender identity that Kohlberg has described
  4. gender-typing begins long before children reach gender consistency and there is little evidence that children progress through the stages of gender identity that Kohlberg has described
  5. all of these

gender-typing begins long before children reach gender consistency

103

Martin and Halverson’s “gender schema” theory proposes that once children have _____, they develop two kinds of gender schemas. The gender schemas that account for their greater in-depth knowledge of gender-appropriate activities and behaviors are _____.

  1. established a basic gender identity; own-sex schemas
  2. established a basic gender identity; “in group-out group” schemas
  3. reached gender constancy; own-sex schemas
  4. reached gender constancy, “in group-out group” schemas

established a basic gender identity; own-sex schemas

104

Martin and Halverson’s gender schema theory proposes that children begin to socialize themselves into gender roles as soon as they __________.

  1. acquire a mature sense of object permanence
  2. have established a basic gender identity
  3. reach gender stability
  4. reach gender consistency

have established a basic gender identity

105

According to Martin and Halverson's gender schema theory, once children have ____, they will acquire two kinds of gender schemas. The "own sex" schema implies _____.

  1. established a basic gender identity; careful attention to gender appropriate activities and little attention to gender inappropriate activities
  2. established a basic gender identity; careful attention to both gender appropriate and gender inappropriate activities, but a strong preference for the gender-appropriate activities
  3. reached gender consistency; careful attention to gender appropriate activities and little attention to gender inappropriate activities
  4. reached gender consistency; careful attention to both gender appropriate and gender inappropriate activities, but a strong preference for gender appropriate activities

established a basic gender identity; careful attention to gender appropriate activities and little attention to gender inappropriate activities

106

Once children acquire "in group-out group" schemas, they tend to

  1. remember information that is consistent with their gender stereotypes
  2. transform schema-inconsistent information so that it becomes more consistent with their gender stereotypes
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

107

Bradbard et al. found that 4- to 9-year-olds remember more about objects that are believed to be gender-appropriate than about opposite-sex objects. This finding was cited as supporting _____ theory of gender typing.

  1. the biosocial
  2. the social-learning
  3. Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental
  4. the gender schema

the gender schema

108

The theory that best explains gender-typing during the first three years is _____, whereas _____ seems to be a better explanation for the development of gender-typed interests between ages 3 and 6.

  1. gender schema theory; social learning theory
  2. gender schema theory; cognitive-developmental theory
  3. social learning theory; cognitive-developmental theory
  4. social learning theory; gender schema theory

social learning theory; gender schema theory

109

The integrative theory of gender typing maintains that very young children (toddlers) display gender-consistent behaviors because

  1. of their desire to be boys and girls
  2. of their intrinsic motivation to seek out information about gender- consistent behaviors
  3. children are self-socializers
  4. other people encourage these activities

other people encourage these activities

110

The text emphasized that _____ children show intrinsic motivation to seek gender-role information and acquire gender-appropriate behaviors.

  1. in infancy and toddlerhood
  2. after 3 years of age
  3. not until after 6-7 years of age do
  4. not until adolescence do

after 3 years of age

111

In attempting to integrate the various theories of gender-typing, the author of your text argues that encouragement of gender-appropriate behaviors leads to _____ which, in turn, promotes the development of _____. Children's strategies for incorporating gender-typed characteristics will change once again as they acquire gender consistency and begin to ____.

  1. gender schemas; a basic gender identity; attend selectively to same-sex models
  2. a basic gender identity; gender schemas; attend selectively to same-sex models
  3. gender schemas; selective attention to same-sex models; establish a basic gender identity
  4. a basic gender identity; selective attention to same-sex models; acquire gender schemas

a basic gender identity; gender schemas; attend selectively to same-sex models

112

Evidence indicates that gender-role development is best explained by

  1. biosocial/psychobiosocial theory
  2. social learning theory
  3. Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory
  4. gender schema theory
  5. an integrative approach that combines all the above viewpoints

an integrative approach that combines all the above viewpoints

113

Androgynous females

  1. are more aggressive than most males
  2. display a large number of both masculine and feminine characteristics
  3. display few masculine or feminine characteristics
  4. have been exposed prenatally to male sex hormones

display a large number of both masculine and feminine characteristics

114

Bem’s theory of psychological androgyny asserts that

  1. if a person scores very high in femininity, he or she must be low in masculinity
  2. psychologically healthy individuals score low in both masculinity and femininity
  3. it is desirable for an individual to simultaneously possess a number of traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine characteristics
  4. inborn biological differences account for virtually all sex differences in personality

it is desirable for an individual to simultaneously possess a number of traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine characteristics

115

According to Bem, androgynous individuals are more _____ than those who are traditionally gender-typed.

  1. adaptable
  2. intelligent
  3. sexually active
  4. socially anxious

adaptable

116

Bem's research on psychological androgyny suggests that androgynous people

  1. perform like feminine gender-typed individuals on "feminine" tasks
  2. perform like masculine gender-typed individuals on "masculine" task
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

117

The high levels of self-esteem found in androgynous individuals

  1. conflict with their high levels of social anxiety
  2. seem to reflect the masculine component of androgyny
  3. is difficult to understand since peers rate androgynous individuals as less popular than their more traditionally gender-typed age mates
  4. all of these

seem to reflect the masculine component of androgyny

118

Research has shown that the association of androgyny with high self-esteem can often be traced to the possession of

  1. masculine traits
  2. feminine traits
  3. traits unique to androgyny
  4. none of these

masculine traits

119

Recent research with fourth- through eighth-graders revealed that among this age range, children who show the best patterns of adjustment are

  1. androgenous
  2. gender-typical but who feel free to explore cross-gender options
  3. masculine gender-typed
  4. undifferentiated (low in both masculinity and femininity)

gender-typical but who feel free to explore cross-gender options

120

During late childhood and early adolescence, children who _____ appear to enjoy greater self-esteem and better peer relations

  1. are androgynous
  2. are masculine gender-typed
  3. are feminine gender-typed
  4. are gender-typical but feel free to explore cross-sex options
  5. are gender-typical and uneasy about exploring cross-sex options

are gender-typical but feel free to explore cross-sex options

121

Bem’s prescription for reducing sexism and sexist attitudes would include all of the following except

  1. instructing young children about sex differences in genital anatomy
  2. instructing young children that biological sex is largely unimportant except for biological reproduction
  3. having fathers cook and clean at least occasionally
  4. none of the above; all are consistent with Bem’s prescriptions for change

none of the above; all are consistent with Bem’s prescriptions for change

122

Educational projects designed to change gender-role attitudes and behaviors have found that such efforts are more effective

  1. with adolescents than with younger children
  2. with girls than with boys
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

with girls than with boys

123

Katz and Walsh (1991) found that interventions aimed at changing gender-role attitudes were more effective when led by an adult _____ because _____.

  1. male; male leaders are more prestigious than female leaders
  2. male; adult males normally make stronger distinctions between gender

appropriate behaviors, thus making them noteworthy as agents of change

  1. female; females argue more passionately for change than males do
  2. female; children are normally persuaded more by their mothers than by their fathers

male; adult males normally make stronger distinctions between gender

appropriate behaviors, thus making them noteworthy as agents of change

124

Interventions aimed at changing children's gender-role attitudes and behaviors are more likely to be successful if

  1. we show children the benefits of cross-sex cooperation and praise them for playing with other-sex peers
  2. we attack sexist stereotypes directly through problem-solving discussions
  3. the adult in charge is a male
  4. we show children the benefits of cross-sex cooperation and praise them for playing with other-sex peers and we attack sexist stereotypes directly through problem-solving discussions
  5. we attack sexist stereotypes directly through problem-solving discussions and the adult in charge is a male

we attack sexist stereotypes directly through problem-solving discussions and the adult in charge is a male

125

Elementary school teachers can combat gender stereotyping were they to

  1. avoid grouping pupils by gender in the classroom
  2. refer to their pupils by name and not call attention to gender
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

126

For many boys and girls, first sexual attractions occur _____.

  1. about age 3, as they begin to fondle their genitals
  2. about age 10, with the secretion of increased androgen by the adrenal glands
  3. at puberty, with increased productions of male and female sex hormones
  4. with the erosion of the gender segregation boundary in adolescence

about age 10, with the secretion of increased androgen by the adrenal glands

127

Children from permissive societies are permitted or even encouraged to engage in sex-play in order to

  1. prepare them for adult roles
  2. teach them that sexual activities cause neither warts nor blindness
  3. keep them quiet when food is scarce
  4. quickly replenish the population after a natural disaster

prepare them for adult roles

128

In relatively nonpermissive societies such as the United States, most children and adolescents learn about sexually explicit matters from contacts with their

  1. parents
  2. siblings
  3. peers
  4. grandparents

peers

129

Recent studies of adolescents’ sexual explorations on-line find that

  1. older adolescents are almost obsessed with sexual matters in online chat

rooms

  1. boys act in ways that suggest they are seeking partners
  2. girls act in ways that suggest they are trying to attract partners

d boys act in ways that suggest they are seeking partners and girls act in ways that suggest they are trying to attract partners

  1. all of these

boys act in ways that suggest they are seeking partners and girls act in ways that suggest they are trying to attract partners

130

When exploring their sexual identities in online chat rooms,

  1. boys seek to attract partners by implicitly communicating sexualized themes
  2. girls seek partners through their explicit sexualized comments
  3. a clear majority of both girls and boys produced sexualized themes during a

single chat session

  1. boys seek to attract partners by implicitly communicating sexualized themes and a clear majority of both girls and boys produced sexualized themes during a single chat session
  2. none of these

none of these

131

Research indicates that most teenagers today believe the premarital sex is

  1. always morally wrong
  2. acceptable as long as the partners are emotionally involved
  3. acceptable for males but not for females
  4. perfectly acceptable under almost all circumstances

acceptable as long as the partners are emotionally involved

132

Which of the following accurately describes adolescents' attitudes towards sex today?

  1. premarital sex is "OK," even with casual acquaintances
  2. the "double standard" has disappeared
  3. sexual norms are clearer and less confusing than for earlier generations
  4. all of these
  5. none of these

none of these

133

The vast majority of homosexuals are homosexual because

  1. they consciously choose to be homosexual
  2. they have been lured into the lifestyle by an older same-sex companion
  3. they have been rejected by their fathers or their mothers and desperately seek the affection of a same-sex companion
  4. none of these

none of these

134

Which of the following has received little support as a contributor to homosexuality?

  1. parental childrearing practices
  2. hormonal influences during the prenatal period
  3. one’s genotype
  4. all of these

parental childrearing practices

135

_____ seems to be a meaningful contributor to a homosexual sexual orientation.

  1. individual genotype
  2. being raised by a gay or lesbian parent
  3. seduction by an older same-sex individual
  4. individual genotype and being raised by a gay or lesbian parent
  5. all of these

individual genotype

136

In the search for environmental influences on sexual orientation, _____ has received the most support.

  1. exposure in childhood to a seductive same-sex adult
  2. living with a gay or lesbian parent
  3. hormonal influence in the prenatal environment

d. none of these; homosexuality or heterosexuality is genetically determined

hormonal influence in the prenatal environment

137

In contrast to the 1950s, contemporary research on adolescent sexual behavior indicates that

  1. today's adolescents masturbate less than their predecessors
  2. adolescents today are less likely to engage in sexual intercourse
  3. adolescent females are about as likely as adolescent males to have had sexual intercourse
  4. the sexual behavior of males has changed more than that of females

adolescent females are about as likely as adolescent males to have had sexual intercourse

138

Studies of the sexual behavior of adolescents in recent years reveal that

  1. girls are more likely than boys to feel that sex and love should go together
  2. rates of sexual activity have declined somewhat from those of the 1970s and 1980s
  3. a clear majority of 15-year-olds have had sex, usually with multiple partners
  4. girls are more likely than boys to feel that sex and love should go together and rates of sexual activity have declined somewhat from those of the 1970s and 1980s
  5. all of these

girls are more likely than boys to feel that sex and love should go together and rates of sexual activity have declined somewhat from those of the 1970s and 1980s

139

The decline in teenage sexual intercourse over the past 15 years seems to reflect

  1. increases in such substitute activities as oral and anal sex
  2. less permissive attitudes about premarital sex in the modern era
  3. the effectiveness of abstinence-only sex education programs
  4. increases in the incidence of safe sexual explorations online

increases in such substitute activities as oral and anal sex

140

Those who are most inclined to become sexually active early in adolescence are

  1. adolescents from low-income rather than middle-class families
  2. good students, who are more likely than poor students to be trusted by parents
  3. teenagers whose friends and siblings are sexually active
  4. adolescents from low-income rather than middle-class families and teenagers whose friends and siblings are sexually active
  5. all of these

adolescents from low-income rather than middle-class families and teenagers whose friends and siblings are sexually active

141

Compared to older mothers, adolescent mothers tend to

  1. know less about child development
  2. be less sensitive and responsive to their infants
  3. receive little support from the child's father
  4. all of these

all of these

142

Developmental deficits shown by children of teenage mothers are likely due, in part, to

  1. birth complications experienced by teenage mothers who receive poor prenatal care
  2. insensitive parenting by teenage mothers, who lack knowledge about child development
  3. their families’ economic disadvantage
  4. all of these

all of these

143

Developmental deficits displayed by children of teenage mothers are much less likely to emerge if the teen mother is _____ .

  1. married
  2. Hispanic or African American
  3. eligible for public assistance
  4. all of these

married

144

Children born to teenage mothers often

  1. show sizable intellectual deficits and emotional disturbances during the preschool years
  2. recover to display adequate academic achievement and good peer relations later in childhood and adolescence
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

show sizable intellectual deficits and emotional disturbances during the preschool years

145

Recent research indicates that _____ is a particularly effective method of

promoting regular condom use among sexually active teens.

  1. sex education stressing abstinence
  2. discussions with parents about condom use before teens become sexually active
  3. discussions with parents about condom use after teens initiate sexual activity
  4. free distribution of condoms by school nurses and public health departments

discussions with parents about condom use before teens become sexually active

146

Abstince-only sex education programs have been found to be effective at

  1. delaying the onset of sexual intercourse
  2. promoting more adaptive attitudes about sex
  3. reducing rates of teenage pregnancy
  4. all of these
  5. none of these

promoting more adaptive attitudes about sex

147

Programs such as Teen Outreach are effective at reducing the incidence of teenage pregnancy because they

  1. keep teens productively involved and increase their optimism about their futures
  2. emphasize the need for abstinence from sexual behaviors
  3. regularly discuss and help teens to properly manage their personal relationships
  4. keep teens productively involved and increase their optimism about their futures and emphasize the need for abstinence from sexual behaviors
  5. keep teens productively involved and increase their optimism about their futures, and regularly discuss and help teens to properly manage their personal relationships

keep teens productively involved and increase their optimism about their futures, and regularly discuss and help teens to properly manage their personal relationships