The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity
Tests both upper and lower motor pathways. The sole of the foot is stimulated with a dull instrument.
Checks the integrity of the spinal cord and dorsal rami at the level of T8 to T12.
Produces a rapid withdrawal of the body part from a painful stimulus; ipsilateral.
Prevents muscle overstretching and maintains muscle tone.
Helps to regulate blood pressure and digestion.
- Receptors located in epithelium of the nasal cavity.
- Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
- A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
- Intermediate relay for incoming and outgoing neurons.
- Includes cortical and brain stem motor areas
- Controls the outputs of the cortex and regulates motor activity.
- The cerebellum and basal nuclei.
Transduction refers to conversion of ______.
stimulus information to nerve impulses
- Central pattern generators.
- The neural machinery of the spinal cord, including spinal cord circuits.
The peripheral nervous system includes ____.
Which nerve does not use the jugular foramen as a route of exit from the skull?
_______ is the tingling sensation or numbness when blood has been cut off from an area, as when the foot ʺgoes to sleep.ʺ
- Turns the eyeball laterally.
- The abducens nerve ________.
- supplies innervation to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
- Serves the senses of hearing and equilibrium
- Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
Pain, temperature, and coarse touch are involved in the ________ ascending pathways of the somatosensory system.
Complex motor behavior such as walking depends on ________ patterns.
The obturator and femoral nerves branch from this plexus.
_______ are modified free-nerve endings found in the deeper levels of the epidermis.
the perineurium defines the boundary of a ________.
The ________ nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves.
Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except _____.
The facial nerve is cranial nerve number
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and Symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, the corner of his mouth roops. Which cranial nerve has been damage?
Ventral spinal cord roots contain ________ fibers, while the dorsal roots contain ________ fibers.
motor (efferent); sensory (afferent)
A simple spinal reflex goes along which of the following reflex arcs?
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
select the correct definition.
A) Magnitude estimation is the simplest level of sensation.
B) Perceptual detection is the ability to detect how much stimulus is applied to the body.
C ) Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
D) Spatial discrimination allows us to recognize textures.
Babinskiʹs sign is ________.
when the great toe dorsiflexes and the other toes fan laterally
The projection level of the brain does not include the ________.
______ law states that any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a joint also innervates the joint itself and the skin over the joint.
select the statement that is most correct.
A) Ganglia are collections of neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord that are associated with efferent fibers.
B) Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.
C) The dorsal root ganglion is a motor-only structure.
D) The cell bodies of afferent ganglia are located in the spinal cord.
________ is a protective reflex that also overrides the spinal pathways and prevents any other reflexes from using them at the same time.
Answer: Flexor reflex
The circuit level of the somatosensory system delivers impulses to the appropriate level of the ________.
Which of the following nerves does notarise from the brachial plexus?
Bellʹs palsy ________.
is characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the _______.
The thickest and longest nerve of the body is found in the ________.
A fall or improper administration of an injection to the buttocks may injure a nerve of this plexus.
Which of the following is at the lowest level of the CNS?
Central Pattern Generators (CPGs)
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal
injection could result in ________.
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
a complete loss of voluntary movement
The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve.
- Striking the ʺfunny boneʺ (ulnar nerve) may cause injury to a nerve of this plexus.
- Trauma to a nerve of this plexus may cause wrist drop.
Which of the following is not a nerve plexus?
- The phrenic nerve branches from this plexus
- Irritation of a major nerve of this plexus may cause hiccups.
A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ___.
- The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
- The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus.
- Answer: TRUE
The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.
The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.
Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves
Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers. Answer: TRUE
Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.
External strabismus and ptosis could be caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve.
In order to regulate motor activity, to start and stop movements, and to coordinate postural movements, the cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved.
The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels.
Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.
The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.
The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________.
- The cranial nerve with a dual origin (brain and spinal cord) is the ________.
- Formed by the union of a cranial and a spinal root.
In the somatosensory system there are no third-order neurons in the cerebellum.
Select the statement about plexuses that is most correct ________.
A) The dorsal rami of all spinal nerves unite to form complex networks
B) Only ventral rami form plexuses
C) Each branch of the plexus contains fibers from a single spinal nerve
D) The ventral rami of thoracic spinal nerves unite to form the thoracic plexus
- Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by _____.
- Which receptors adapt most slowly?
Meissnerʹs corpuscles ________.
The trochlear nerve conveys proprioceptor impulses from the ________ to the brain.
superior rectus muscle
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.
Regeneration within the CNS ________.
is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes.
Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):
roots, trunks, divisions, and cords
In a crossed extensor reflex, if the right arm were grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.
A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a _______.
Golgi tendon reflex
Which of the following numbers of pairs of spinal nerves is correct?
Striking the ʺfunny boneʺ is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.
Which of the following is not true about the integration center of a reflex arc?
There are always multiple synapses with chains of interneurons.
Inborn or intristic reflexes ________.
are involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
The three primary levels of neural integration in a somatosensory system include all of the following except the ________.
A) effector level B) receptor level
C) circuit level D) perceptual level
The patellar ʺknee jerkʺ reflex is an example of a(n) ________.
All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.
The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves?
common fibular and tibial