THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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1
  1. This area is the main visceral control center of the body?
  2. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the
  3. What 7 areas of the body is the hypothalamus in control of?
  1. Hypothalamus
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. 1. ANS. 2. Center of emotional responses. 3. Body temperature regulation. 4. Regulation of food intake. 5. Regulation of water balance and thirst. 6. Regulation of the sleep-wake cycles. 7. Control of the endocrine functions.
2
  1. Taste (gustatory) area.
  2. Primary sensory cortex.
  3. Auditory area, Language/speech comprehension area.
  4. Visual area
  5. Somatic motor cortex, Motor speech area, Premotor area, Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning
  1. Insula
  2. Parietal lobe
  3. Temporal lobe
  4. Occipital lobe
  5. Frontal lobe
3

A major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei .

Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.

Thalamus

4

This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience.

Prefrontal area

5

The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts.

Primary motor cortex

6
  • Necessary for emotional health; may be neural ʺdebugging.
  • Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs.
  • Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep.

REM

7

Typified by sleep spindles.

Stage 2

8

Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep.

Stage 1

9
  • Theta and delta waves begin to appear
  • In stage 3 sleep, ________ and ________ waves appear.
  • Stage 3
  • theta; delta
10

The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels

Stage 4

11

The nonspecific ascending pathways

are involved in the emotional aspects of perception

12

Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the .

The ________ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves V-VII.

pons

13

The arbor vitae refers to

cerebellar white matter

14

The brain stem consists of the ________.

midbrain, medulla, and pons

15

The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.

temporal lobe

16

Spinocerebellar tracts

carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

17

The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.

inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root

18

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

arachnoid and pia

19

Which statement is not true?

A) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.

B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.

C) Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.

D) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.

20

Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?

A) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor..

B) During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked.

C) Petit mal epilepsy typically begins in adolescence and is often severely disabling.

D) The aura in grand mal epilepsy typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.

21

White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception of the ________.

cerebral cortex

22

Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.

premotor cortex

23

________ waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children.

Theta

24

The fourth ventricle is continuous with the ________ of the spinal cord.

central canal

25

The large commissure that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the _____.

corpus callosum

26

The ________ are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood.

arachnoid villi

27

The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

diencephalon

28

The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________.

pituitary gland

29

Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ________ horn.

dorsal

30

The ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged the past is lost.

amygdala

31

memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing.

Procedural (Skill)

32

______ rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness.

Circadian

33

The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the ________.

pyramids

34

_____ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly.

Sleep apnea

35
  • The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ______.
  • Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?

medulla

36

Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?

red nuclei

37

Declarative memory

is the ability to learn specific information

38

NREM sleep episodes are frequently associated with erection of the penis.

Answer: FALSE

39

Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain.

Answer: TRUE

40

Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.

Answer: FALSE

41

The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space.

Answer: TRUE

42

Projection fibers in the brain mainly connect the right and left hemispheres.

Answer: FALSE

43

Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other.

Answer: TRUE

44

Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum.

Answer: FALSE

45

Sensory areas of the cortex for the genitals are located deep in the postcentral gyrus.

Answer: TRUE

46

The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain.

Answer: TRUE

47

Nondeclarative memories preserve the circumstances in which they are learned.

Answer: FALSE

48

The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro.

Answer: FALSE

49

One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.

Answer: TRUE

50

The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system.

Answer:FALSE

51

A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.

Answer: TRUE

52

Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.

Answer: FALSE

53

The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate.

Answer: TRUE

54

Theta waves are a brain wave pattern that can be seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia.

Answer: FALSE

55

The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant.

Answer: TRUE

56

A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.

Answer: FALSE

57

The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing.

Answer: TRUE

58

NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate.

Answer: TRUE

59

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.

Answer: TRUE

60

The spinal cord ends between L1 and L2.

Answer: TRUE

61

Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age.

Answer: TRUE

62

Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.

Answer: TRUE

63
  1. Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.
  2. One disorder of the substantia nigra is Parkinsonʹs disease.
  3. The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ________.
  1. Parkinsonʹs disease
  2. Answer: TRUE
  3. substantia nigra
64

The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.

longitudinal fissure

65

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

66
  1. What is the limbic system?
  2. The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our_____.
  1. This is an area of the brain that is in control of our emotions, such as fear, anger, love,hate, etc. It can be acted upon by smell (the smell of a gas, perfume, dead animas), memories, taste, sight, and self-will.
  2. Emotional impact
67

A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.

SULCUS

68

The cerebrospinal fluid .

is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses and modified by ependymal cells

69

If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.

the spinal cord may be affected

70

The central sulcus separates which lobes?

The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.

  • frontal from parietal
  • LATERAL SULCUS
71

Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be _____.

lateral spinothalamic

72

Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?

fiber tracts

73

The hypothalamus ________.

is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature

74

A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ______.

rubrospinal

75

An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.

paraplegia

76

The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.

myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers

77

Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.

upper motor neurons

78

Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.

structurally distinct cortical areas

79

Brocaʹs area ________.

is considered a motor speech area

80

Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.

gyri

81

An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.

visual association area

82

Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ______.

pyramidal and corticospinal

83

The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.

metabolic waste such as urea

84

The function of commissures is to connect ________.

corresponding areas of the two hemispheres

85

Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?

substantia nigra

86

All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.

caudate nucleus

87

Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?

third ventricle

88

An electroencephalogram ________.

indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz

89

The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.

consolidation

90

The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the _____.

reticular formation

91

Which of the following would you notfind in normal cerebrospinal fluid?

red blood cells

92

REM sleep is associated with ________.

temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles

93

Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12- You would expect to find all of the following except ________.

slurred speech

94

Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.

loss of proprioception

95

White matter of the spinal cord ________.

contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts

96

Which statement about aging is most accurate?

Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.

97

Which association regarding the function and location of the cerebrum is most accurate?

motor-anterior

98

Brain wave amplitude ________.

reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously

99

Declarative memory is not stored in the ________.

mammillary body

100

Huntingtonʹs disease ________.

has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease

101

The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.

skill learning

102

Storing information in long-term memory ________.

is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine

103

Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ______.

vestibular nuclei

104

The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the _______.

visceral sensory area

105

Which statement about coma is true?

Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.

106

Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?

concussion