THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
- This area is the main visceral control center of the body?
- The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the
- What 7 areas of the body is the hypothalamus in control of?
- 1. ANS. 2. Center of emotional responses. 3. Body temperature regulation. 4. Regulation of food intake. 5. Regulation of water balance and thirst. 6. Regulation of the sleep-wake cycles. 7. Control of the endocrine functions.
- Taste (gustatory) area.
- Primary sensory cortex.
- Auditory area, Language/speech comprehension area.
- Visual area
- Somatic motor cortex, Motor speech area, Premotor area, Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning
- Parietal lobe
- Temporal lobe
- Occipital lobe
- Frontal lobe
A major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei .
Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________.
This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience.
The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts.
Primary motor cortex
- Necessary for emotional health; may be neural ʺdebugging.
- Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs.
- Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep.
Typified by sleep spindles.
Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep.
- Theta and delta waves begin to appear
- In stage 3 sleep, ________ and ________ waves appear.
- Stage 3
- theta; delta
The stage when vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal levels
The nonspecific ascending pathways
are involved in the emotional aspects of perception
Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the .
The ________ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves V-VII.
The arbor vitae refers to
cerebellar white matter
The brain stem consists of the ________.
midbrain, medulla, and pons
The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.
carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.
inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
arachnoid and pia
Which statement is not true?
A) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
C) Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
D) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
A) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and tumor..
B) During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked.
C) Petit mal epilepsy typically begins in adolescence and is often severely disabling.
D) The aura in grand mal epilepsy typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.
White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception of the ________.
Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.
________ waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children.
The fourth ventricle is continuous with the ________ of the spinal cord.
The large commissure that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the _____.
The ________ are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood.
The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________.
Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ________ horn.
The ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged the past is lost.
memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing.
______ rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness.
The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the ________.
_____ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly.
- The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ______.
- Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
is the ability to learn specific information
NREM sleep episodes are frequently associated with erection of the penis.
Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain.
Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus.
The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space.
Projection fibers in the brain mainly connect the right and left hemispheres.
Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other.
Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum.
Sensory areas of the cortex for the genitals are located deep in the postcentral gyrus.
The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain.
Nondeclarative memories preserve the circumstances in which they are learned.
The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro.
One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.
The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system.
A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.
Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.
The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate.
Theta waves are a brain wave pattern that can be seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia.
The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant.
A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.
The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing.
NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate.
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.
The spinal cord ends between L1 and L2.
Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age.
Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord.
- Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________.
- One disorder of the substantia nigra is Parkinsonʹs disease.
- The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ________.
- Parkinsonʹs disease
- Answer: TRUE
- substantia nigra
The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
- What is the limbic system?
- The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our_____.
- This is an area of the brain that is in control of our emotions, such as fear, anger, love,hate, etc. It can be acted upon by smell (the smell of a gas, perfume, dead animas), memories, taste, sight, and self-will.
- Emotional impact
A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
The cerebrospinal fluid .
is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses and modified by ependymal cells
If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.
the spinal cord may be affected
The central sulcus separates which lobes?
The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
- frontal from parietal
- LATERAL SULCUS
Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be _____.
Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
The hypothalamus ________.
is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ______.
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________.
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
upper motor neurons
Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.
structurally distinct cortical areas
Brocaʹs area ________.
is considered a motor speech area
Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.
An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
visual association area
Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ______.
pyramidal and corticospinal
The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
metabolic waste such as urea
The function of commissures is to connect ________.
corresponding areas of the two hemispheres
Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?
All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?
An electroencephalogram ________.
indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz
The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.
The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the _____.
Which of the following would you notfind in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
red blood cells
REM sleep is associated with ________.
temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles
Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12- You would expect to find all of the following except ________.
Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
loss of proprioception
White matter of the spinal cord ________.
contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
Which statement about aging is most accurate?
Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life.
Which association regarding the function and location of the cerebrum is most accurate?
Brain wave amplitude ________.
reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously
Declarative memory is not stored in the ________.
Huntingtonʹs disease ________.
has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease
The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.
Storing information in long-term memory ________.
is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine
Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ______.
The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the _______.
visceral sensory area
Which statement about coma is true?
Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.
Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?