ch 38 bio Flashcards


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1

43) An injury to the occipital lobe will likely impair the function of the

  1. A) primary visual cortex.
  2. B) thalamus.
  3. C) optic chiasma.
  4. D) sense of taste.
  5. E) sense of touch.

Answer: A

2

44) A ligand for the umami receptor in the sense of taste is

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) sodium ions.
  3. C) potassium ions.
  4. D) hydrogen ions.
  5. E) monosodium glutamate.

Answer: E

3

45) The olfactory bulbs are located in the

  1. A) nasal cavity.
  2. B) anterior pituitary gland.
  3. C) posterior pituitary gland.
  4. D) brain.
  5. E) brainstem.

Answer: D

4

46) The correct sequence of sensory processing is

  1. A) sensory adaptation → stimulus reception → sensory transduction → sensory perception.
  2. B) stimulus reception → sensory transduction → sensory perception → sensory adaptation.
  3. C) sensory perception → stimulus reception → sensory transduction → sensory adaptation.
  4. D) sensory perception → sensory transduction → stimulus reception → sensory adaptation.
  5. E) stimulus reception → sensory perception → sensory adaptation → sensory transduction.

Answer: B

5

47) Artificial electrical stimulation of a human's capsaicin-sensitive neurons would likely produce the sensation of

  1. A) cold temperature.
  2. B) hot temperature.
  3. C) tactile stimulus.
  4. D) odor of pepper.
  5. E) deep pressure.

Answer: B

6

48) Artificial electrical stimulation of a human's menthol-sensitive neurons would likely produce the sensation of

  1. A) cold temperature.
  2. B) hot temperature.
  3. C) tactile stimulus.
  4. D) odor of pepper.
  5. E) deep pressure.

Answer: A

7

49) Tastes and smells are distinct kinds of environmental information in that

  1. A) neural projections from taste receptors reach different parts of the brain than the neural projections from olfactory receptors.
  2. B) the single area of the cerebral cortex that receives smell and taste signals can distinguish tastes and smells by the pattern of action potentials received.
  3. C) tastant molecules are airborne, whereas odorant molecules are dissolved in fluids.
  4. D) distinguishing tastant molecules requires learning, whereas smell discrimination is an innate process.
  5. E) odorants bind to receptor proteins, but none of the tastant stimuli will bind to receptors.

Answer: A

8

50) Stimuli alter the activity of excitable sensory cells via

  1. A) integration.
  2. B) transmission.
  3. C) transduction.
  4. D) transcription.
  5. E) amplification.

Answer: C

9

51) Choose the correct sequence of the following events leading to the sensory processing of a stimulus.

  1. transmission
  2. transduction
  3. integration
  4. amplification
  5. A) 1 → 2 → 3 → 4
  6. B) 1 → 4 → 2 → 3
  7. C) 2 → 4 → 1 → 3
  8. D) 3 → 1 → 2 → 4
  9. E) 3 → 1 → 4 → 2

Answer: C

10

52) Immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin might feel itchy. However, this perception soon fades due to

  1. A) sensory adaptation.
  2. B) accommodation.
  3. C) the increase of transduction.
  4. D) reduced motor unit recruitment.
  5. E) reduced receptor amplification.

Answer: A

11

53) A given photon of light may trigger an action potential with thousands of times more energy because the signal strength is magnified by

  1. A) the receptor.
  2. B) a G protein.
  3. C) an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
  4. D) sensory adaptation.
  5. E) triggering several receptors at once.

Answer: C

12

54) The generation of action potentials in olfactory neurons initiated by odors drawn into the nasal cavity is an example of

  1. A) perception.
  2. B) sensory transduction.
  3. C) sensory adaptation.
  4. D) habituation.
  5. E) lateral inhibition.

Answer: B

13

55) Umami perception would be stimulated by

  1. A) sugar water.
  2. B) chocolate milk.
  3. C) a savory and rich cheese.
  4. D) acidic orange juice.
  5. E) salt water.

Answer: C

Topic: Concept 38.4

Skill: Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome: 38.4

14

56) Proteins coded by a very large family of related genes are active in the sensory transduction of

  1. A) gustatory stimuli.
  2. B) olfactory stimuli.
  3. C) visual stimuli.
  4. D) auditory stimuli.

E) stimuli related to the position of the head.

Answer: B

15

57) Statocysts contain cells that are

  1. A) mechanoreceptors used to detect orientation relative to gravity.
  2. B) chemoreceptors used in selecting migration routes.
  3. C) photoreceptors used in setting biological rhythms.
  4. D) thermoreceptors used in prey detection.
  5. E) chemoreceptors used in acid-base balance.

Answer: A

16

58) An earthworm without a statocyst would not be able to

  1. A) move.
  2. B) sense light.
  3. C) hear.
  4. D) orient with respect to gravity.
  5. E) respond to touch.

Answer: D

17

59) The cellular membrane across which ion flow varies during auditory transduction is the

  1. A) tectorial membrane.
  2. B) tympanic membrane.
  3. C) round-window membrane.
  4. D) hair cell membrane.
  5. E) basilar membrane.

Answer: D

18

60) Sound waves arriving at a listener first strike the

  1. A) tectorial membrane.
  2. B) tympanic membrane.
  3. C) round-window membrane.
  4. D) hair cell membrane.
  5. E) basilar membrane.

Answer: B

19

61) The pathway leading to the perception of sound by mammals begins with the

  1. A) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the basilar membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.
  2. B) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the tympanic membrane, coming in contact with the tectorial membrane.
  3. C) hair cells of the organ of Corti, which rests on the tectorial membrane, coming in contact with the basilar membrane.
  4. D) hair cells of the organ of Corti coming in contact with the tectorial membrane as a result of fluid waves in the cochlea causing vibrations in the round window.
  5. E) hair cells on the tympanic membrane as a result of fluid waves in the cochlea causing vibrations in the round window.

Answer: A

20

62) The cochlea is an organ of auditory transduction that contains

  1. A) fluid and cells that can undergo mechanosensory transduction.
  2. B) air and cells that produce wax.
  3. C) air and small bones that vibrate in response to sound waves.
  4. D) fluid with stacks of chemosensory cells.
  5. E) air and statocysts activated by movement.

Answer: A

21

63) Dizziness is a perceived sensation that can occur when

  1. A) the hair cells in the cochlea move more than their normal limits.
  2. B) moving fluid in the semicircular canals encounters a stationary cupula.
  3. C) rods and cones provide information that does not correspond with information received by cochlear hair cells.
  4. D) the basilar membrane makes physical contact with the tectorial membrane.
  5. E) the utricle is horizontal but the saccule is vertical.

Answer: B

22

64) The perceived pitch of a sound depends on

  1. A) which part of the tympanic membrane is being vibrated by sound waves.
  2. B) which part of the oval window produces waves in the cochlear fluid.
  3. C) which region of the basilar membrane was set in motion.
  4. D) whether or not the sound moves the incus, malleus, and stapes.
  5. E) the listener having had training in music.

Answer: C

23

65) The sand grains or other dense materials resting on mechanoreceptors used by most invertebrates to sense gravity are called

  1. A) cochlea.
  2. B) statoliths.
  3. C) stapes.
  4. D) pinnae.
  5. E) antennae.

Answer: B

24

66) It can be very difficult to select an angle for sneaking up to a grasshopper to catch it because grasshoppers have

  1. A) excellent hearing for detecting predators.
  2. B) compound eyes with multiple ommatidia.
  3. C) eyes with multiple fovea.
  4. D) a camera-like eye with multiple fovea.
  5. E) binocular vision.

Answer: B

25

67) Sensory transduction of light/dark information in the vertebrate retina is accomplished by

  1. A) ganglion cells.
  2. B) amacrine cells.
  3. C) bipolar cells.
  4. D) horizontal cells.
  5. E) rods and cones.

Answer: E

26

68) Rods exposed to light will

  1. A) depolarize due to the opening of sodium channels.
  2. B) hyperpolarize due to the closing of sodium channels.
  3. C) depolarize due to the opening of potassium channels.
  4. D) hyperpolarize due to the closing of potassium channels.
  5. E) fire one action potential for each photon received.

Answer: B

27

69) A rod exposed to light will

  1. A) fire action potentials that will increase its release of glutamate.
  2. B) undergo a graded depolarization that will increase its release of glutamate.
  3. C) undergo a graded hyperpolarization that will increase its release of glutamate.
  4. D) undergo a graded depolarization that will decrease its release of glutamate.
  5. E) undergo a graded hyperpolarization that will decrease its release of glutamate.

Answer: E

28

70) In the human retina

  1. A) cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot.
  2. B) cone cells are more sensitive than rod cells to light.
  3. C) cone cells, but not rod cells, have a visual pigment.
  4. D) rod cells are most highly concentrated in the center of the retina.
  5. E) rod cells require higher illumination for stimulation than do cone cells.

Answer: A

29

6) The structure diagrammed in Figure 38.2 is the

  1. A) neuromast.
  2. B) statocyst.
  3. C) taste bud.
  4. D) ommatidium.
  5. E) olfactory bulb.

Answer: B

30

7) The structure involved in equalizing the pressure between the ear and the atmosphere is represented by number

  1. A) 7.
  2. B) 1.
  3. C) 8.
  4. D) 9.
  5. E) 10.

Answer: C

31

8) The sense of head motion begins with sensory transduction by the structures at which numbers?

  1. A) 2, 3, and 4
  2. B) 2, 5, and 7
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 5
  5. E) 7 and 8

Answer: D

32

9) Vibrations of the tympanic membrane are transmitted to the oval window by the structures at which numbers?

  1. A) 1, 2, 3, and 4
  2. B) 2, 3, and 4
  3. C) 3 and 4
  4. D) 4
  5. E) 5

Answer: B

33

10) The organ of Corti is contained in the structure numbered

  1. A) 3.
  2. B) 4.
  3. C) 5.
  4. D) 6.
  5. E) 7.

Answer: E

34

11) Hair cells are found in the structures represented by numbers

  1. A) 1 and 2.
  2. B) 3 and 4.
  3. C) 5 and 7.
  4. D) 6 and 8.
  5. E) 9 and 10.

Answer: C

35

1) Experiments with genetically altered mice showed that the mice would consume abnormally high amounts of bitter-tasting compounds in water after their

  1. A) hormone receptors for digestive hormones were reduced or eliminated, showing that bitter tastes are reinforced by digestive responses.
  2. B) salt-taste cells were altered to express receptors for bitter tastants, suggesting that animals have unregulated salt appetites.
  3. C) visual sense was reduced or eliminated, suggesting that mice learn visual cues about bitter tastes.
  4. D) olfactory sense was reduced or eliminated, suggesting that mice learn odor cues about bitter tastes.
  5. E) sweet-taste cells were altered to express receptors for bitter tastants, suggesting that the sensation of taste depends only on which taste cell is stimulated.

Answer: E

36

3) The middle ear converts

  1. A) air pressure waves to fluid pressure waves.
  2. B) fluid pressure waves to air pressure waves.
  3. C) air pressure waves to nerve impulses.
  4. D) fluid pressure waves to nerve impulses.
  5. E) pressure waves to hair cell movements.

Answer: A

37

4) If the following events are arranged in the order in which they occur for an animal hiding in response to seeing a predator, which is the fourth event in the series?

  1. A) signaling by an afferent PNS neuron
  2. B) signaling by an efferent PNS neuron
  3. C) information processing in the CNS
  4. D) activation of a sensory receptor
  5. E) activation of a motor system

Answer: B

38

6) Which sensory distinction is not encoded by a difference in which axon transfers the information to the brain?

  1. A) white and red
  2. B) red and green
  3. C) loud and faint
  4. D) salty and sweet
  5. E) spicy and cool

Answer: C

39

7) Although some sharks close their eyes just before they bite, their bites are on target. Researchers have noted that sharks often misdirect their bites at metal objects and that they can find batteries buried under sand. This evidence suggests that sharks keep track of their prey during the split second before they bite in the same way that

  1. A) a rattlesnake finds a mouse in its burrow.
  2. B) an insect avoids being stepped on.
  3. C) a star-nosed mole locates its prey in tunnels.
  4. D) a platypus locates its prey in a muddy river.
  5. E) a flatworm avoids light places.

Answer: D