Chemical Digestion

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1

Increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product

catalist

2

Provides a standard of comparison for test results

Control

3

Biologic catalyst: protein in nature

enzyme

4

Substance on which a catalyst works

substrait

5

The enzymes of the digestive system are classified as hydrolyses. What does that mean?

Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes or hydrolases. break down by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus breaking bonds between the building blocks, or monomers.

6

What enzyme is this:

1. organ producing it is salivary gland

2. produced in the mouth

3. substrate is starch

4. Optimal ph is neutral

Salivary amylase

7

What enzyme is this

1. Organ producing it is pancrease

2. Site of action is small intestine

3. Substrate is polypeptide

4. Optimal ph 7.4 - 7.8

Trypsin

8

What enzyme is this:

1. Organ producing it is the pancrease

2. Site of action is the small intestine

3. Substrate is lipid, fats

4. Optimal ph is 7.4-7.8

Lipase (pancreatic)

9

Name the end products of digestion for the following types of foods:

fats

fatty acids & monoglycerides

10

Name the end products of digestion for the following types of foods:

Proteins

amino acids

11

Name the end products of digestion for the following types of foods:

carbohydrates

glucose

12

In the exercise concerning trypsin function how could you tell protein hydrolysis occurred?

From clear fluid to yellow fluid a possitive reaction

13

Why was tube 1T necessary

serves for a control tube

14

Why was tube 2T necessary

serves as a substrate control

15

Why was 37c the optimal incubation temperature?

physiological temp of our body is 37c this is the temp a trypsin enzyme would function in

16

Why did very little, if any, digestion occur in test tube 3T?

Because it was boiled and raised the temperature.

17

Why did very little digestion occur in test tube 5T?

enzyme will not work at 0 degrees.

18

Trypsin is a protein-digesting enzyme similar to pepsin, the proein-digesting enzyme in the stomach. Would trypsin work will in the stomach? Why not?

Stomach is very acidic and pepsin is stable at a 2 ph where as trypsin is stable at 7.4-7.6 ph

19

How did the apperance of the addition of bile salt effect vial 2.

Vial 1 only had oil and water

Vial 2 had oil, water and pinch of bile salts (BPNA) the bile added to vial 2 breakes oil drops apart

20

Pancreatic and intestinal enzymes operate optimally at a ph that is slightly alkaline, yet the chyme entering the duodemnum form the stomach is very acidic. How is the proper ph for the functioning of the pancreatic intestinal enzymes ensured?

pancreas delivers its enzymes to the small intestine in an alkaline rich fluid. It then secretes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes stomach acid.

21

Blocks off nasal passages during swallowing

uvula

22

voluntary phase of swallowing

buccal

23

propulsive waves of smooth muscle contraction

pharyngeal esophageal

24

spinchter that opens when food or fluids exert pressure on it

gastroesophangeal (cardiac)

25

movement that mainly serves to mix foodstuffs

segmental

26

forces food into the pharynx

tongue

27

involuntary phase of swallowing

peristalsis

28

Structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall

anus

29

Three modifications of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption

circular folds, villi, microvilli

30

Large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine

peyers patches

31

deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine

circular folds

32

regions that break down foodstuffs mechanically

oral cavity, stomach

33

mobile organ that initiates swallowing

tongue

34

conduit that serves the respiratory and digestive systems

pharynx

35

lies posterior to the trachea; conveys food from the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

36

surface projections of a mucosal epithelial cell

microvilli

37

valve at the junction of the small and large intestines

ileocecal valve

38

primary region of enzymatic digestion

small intestine

39

membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth

frenulum

40

area between the teeth and lip/cheeks

oral vestibule

41

wormlike sac that out pockets from the cecum

appendix

42

carbohydrate (starch) digestion begins here

oral cavity

43

two layered serous membrane attached to the greater curvature of the stomach

greater omentum

44

organ distal to the small intestine

large intestine

45

valve preventing movement of chyme from the duodenum into the stomach

pyloric sphincter

46

posteriorsuperior boundary of the oral cavity

soft palate

47

location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass

small intestine

48

outermost layer of a digestive organ in the abdominal cavity

visceral peritoneum

49

principal site for the synthesis of vitamins B, K by bacteria

large intestine

50

distal end of the alimentary canal

anus

51

bone-supported part of roof of the mouth

hard palate

52

produces mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine

duodenal glands

53

groduces a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth

salvary

54

produces a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted into the duodenum

pancreas

55

produces bile that it secretes into the duodenum via the bile duct

liver

56

produces HCI and pepsinogen

gastric

57

What is the role of the gallbaldder

stores bile

58

visible portion of tooth

crown

59

material covering the tooth root

cement

60

hardest substance in the body

enamel

61

attaches the tooth to bone and surrounding alveolar structures

periodontal ligament

62

portion of the tooth embeded in bone

root

63

forms the major protion of tooth structure; similar to bone

dentin

64

area of the tooth below the dentin

pulp

65

site of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics

pulp

66

portion of the tooth covered with enamel

crown