Bioscience II: Exam 2

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by Courtney_LeDuc
1,263 views
updated 4 years ago by Courtney_LeDuc
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

According to the endosymbioic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?

A.) from infoldings of the plasma membrane, coupled with mutations of genes for proteins in energy-transfer reactions

B.) from engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria

C.) by secondary endosymbiosis

D.) from the nuclear envelope folding outward and forming mitochondrial membranes

E.) when a protoeukaryote engaged in a symbiotic relationship with a protocell

B

2

Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from

A.) transduction

B.) transformation

C.) conjugation

D.) mutation

E.) meiosis

E

3

Bagworm moth caterpillars feed on evergreens and carry a silken case or bag around with them in which they eventually pupate. Adult female bagworm moths are larval in appearence; they lack the wings and other structures of the adult male and instead retain the appearence of a caterpillar even though they sexually mature and can lay eggs within the bag. This is a good example of

A.) allometric growth

B.) paedomorphosis

C.) sympatric speciation

D.) adaptive radiation

E.) changes in homeotic genes

B

4

Multicellular colonies of plant cells adhere to each other primarily by _____, whereas multicellular colonies of animal cells are typically held together by ____.

A.) fusion of cellular membranes; cell walls

B.) cell walls; fused cellular membranes

C.) cell walls; proteins

D.) interlocking chloroplasts; interlocking mitochondria

E.) interlocking cellular shape (like puzzle pieces); large, calcified capsules

C

5

Adaptive radiations can be a direct consequence of four of the following five factors. Select the exception.

A.) vacant ecological niches

B.) genetic drift

C.) colonization of an isolated region that contains suitable habitat and few competitors species

D.) evolutionary innovation

E.) an adaptive radiation in a group of organisms (such as plants) that another group uses as food

B

6

The fossil record is not biased in favor of species that

A.) existed for a long time

B.) were abundant and widespread

C.)were selectively rare

D.) had hard parts

C

7

The ______ defines the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras 251 million years ago. This mass extinction occurred in less than 500,000 years and caused extinction of about 96% of marine animal species.

A.) Permian extinction

B.) Triassic extinction

C.) Cretaceous extinction

D.) Devonian extinction

A

8

Adaptive radiations may follow

A.) Mass extinctions

B.) The evolution of novel characteristics

C.) The colonization of new regions

D.) All of the above

E.) Only two of the above

D

9

Approximately how far back in time does the fossil record extend?

A.) 3.5 million years

B.) 5.0 million years

C.) 3.5 billion years

D.) 5.0 billion years

C

10

Prokaryotes' essential genetic information is located in the

A.) nucleolus

B.) nucleoid

C.) nucleosome

D.) plasmids

E.) exospore

B

11

Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.

1. autotroph

2. heterotroph

3. phototroph

4. chemotroph

an organism that obtains energy from light

A.) 1 only

B.) 3 only

C.) 1 and 3

D.) 2 and 4

E.) 1, 3 and 4

B

12

In general, what is the primary ecological role of prokaryotes?

A.) parasitizing eukaryotes, thus causing diseases

B.) breaking down organic matter

C.) metabolizing materials in extreme environments

D.) adding methane to the atmosphere

E.) serving as primary producers in terrestrial environments

B

13

The chloroplasts of land plants are thought to have been derived according to which evolutionary sequence?

A.) cyanobacteria....green algae...land plants

B.) cyanobacteria...green algae....fungi...lands plants

C.) red algae...brown algae...green algae...land plants

D.) cyanobacteria...red algae...green algae...land plants

A

14

Fossilized stromatolites

A.) more than 2.8 billion years old have not been discovered

B.) formed around deep-sea vents

C.) resemble structures formed by bacterial communities that are found today in some shallow marine bays

D.) provide evidence that plants moved onto land in the company of fungi around 500 million years ago.

E.) contain the first undisputed fossils of eukaryotes and date from 1.8 billion years ago

C

15

Match the numbered terms to the description that follows. Choose all appropriate terms.

1. autotroph

2. herterotroph

3. phototroph

4. chemotroph

a prokaryote that obtains both energy and carbon as it decomposes dead organisms

A.) 1 only

B.) 4 only

C.) 1 and 3

D.) 2 and 4

E.) 1, 3, and 4

D

16

Which shape is not one of the three most common shapes of bactera?

A.) spheres

B.) rods

C.) cones

D.) spirals

C

17

The evolution of muticellularity in animals required adaptations that promoted

A.) cellular migration and intercellular communication

B.) cellular migration and cellular adhesion

C.) cellular adhesion and intercellular communication

D.) photosynthesis and cellular migration

E.) cellular fusion and regeneration

C

18

Which of the following is the most likely sequence of events, from earliest to most recent, in the evolution of sponges (organisms with many cells that have different functions)?

1. single-celled eukaryote

2. single-celled prokaryote

3. multicellular eukaryote

4. colonial eukaryote

A.) 2,1,4,3

B.) 2,1,3,4

C.) 1,2,3,4

D.) 1,2,4,3

A

19

One explanation for the evolution of insect wings suggests that wings began as lateral extensions of the body that were use as heart dissipaters for thermoregulation. When they had become sufficiently large, these extensions became useful for gliding through the air, and selection later refined them as flight-producing wings. If this hypothesis is correct, modern insect wings could best be described as

A.) adaptions

B.) mutations

C.) exaptations

D.) isolating mechanisms

E.) examples of natural selection's predictive ability

C

20

The oldest fossil eukaryote that can be resolved taxonomically is of

A.) a red alga that lived 1.2 billion years ago

B.) a red alga that lived 635 million years ago

C.) a fungus that lived 2 billion years ago

D.) a fungus that lived 550 million years ago

E.) an Ediacaran that lived 550 million years ago

A

21

The evolution of complex multicellularity in eukaryotes

A.) occurred only once, in common ancestor of all eukaryotes

B.) occurred only once, in common ancestor of all multicellular eukaryotes

C.) occurred only once, in animal lineage.

D.) is not documented by fossil record.

E.) occurred independently in several different eukaryotic lineages

E

22

The first terrestrial organisms probably were considered which of the following?

1. burrowers

2. photosynthetic

3. multicellular

4. prokaryotes

5. eukaryotes

6. plants and their associated fungi

A.) 2 and 4

B.) 3 and 5

C.) 1, 3 and 5

D.) 2,3, and 6

E.) 2, 3, 5, and 6

A

23

The oldest known fossils are stromatolites, rocks formed by the accumulation of sedimentary layers on bacterial mats. Stromatolites date back

A.) 1.5 billion years ago

B.) 2.5 billion years ago

C.) 3.5 billion years ago

D.) 4.5 billion years ago

C

24

Photoautotrophs use

A.) light as an energy source and methane as a carbon source

B.) light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source

C.) N2 as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source

D.) CO2 as both an energy source and a carbon source

E.) H2S2 as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source

B

25

Major boundaries between geological divisions correspond to

A.) radiometric dating

B.) extinction events in the fossil record

C.) sedimentary strata

D.) isotope decay

B

26

Mammals belong to the group of animals called

A.) "SAR" clade

B.) Archaeplastida

C.) Unikonta

D.) Excavata

C

27

Half of all marine species and many terrestrial plants and animals, including most dinosaurs went extinct during the

A.) Permian extinction

B.) Triassic extinction

C.) Cretaceous extinction

D.) Devonian extinction

C

28

Novel features of eukaryotes, including_______arose 1.3 billion to 635 million years ago

A.) complex mulicellularity

B.) photosynthesis

C.) sexual life cycles

D.) only two of the above

E.) all of the above

E

29

The first genetic material was probably

A.) DNA

B.) tDNA

C.) RNA

D.) mRNA

C

30

Bacterial cell walls are made of

A.) cellulose

B.) peptidoglycan

C.) chitin

D.) riboxose

B