which epidermal cell type is most nymerous
Which cell functions as part of the immune system
the epidermis proves a physical barrier due largely to the presence of
skin color is determined by
a.)the amount of blood
c.)oxygenation level of the blood
d.)all of the above
all of the above
the sensations of touch and pressure are picked up by receptors.
a.)the stratum spinosum
which is not a true statement about the papillary layer of the dermis?
a.)it is largely areolar connective tissue
b.)it is most responsible for the toughness of the skin
c.)it contains nerve endings that respond to stimuli
d.)it is highly vascular
it is most responsible for the toughness of the skin
skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called.
which of the following is not an epidermal derivative?
an arrector pili muscle
a.)is associated with each sweat gland
b.)can cause a hair to stand up straight
c.)enables each hair to be stretched when wet
d.)provides new cells for continued growth of its associated hair.
can cause a hair to stand up straight
the product of this type of sweat gland includes protein and lipid substances that become odoriferous as result of bacterial action:
a.)lubricates the surface of the skin and hair
b.)consists of cell fragments and fatty substances
c.)in excess may cause seborrhea
d.)all of these
all of these
the rule of nines is helpful clinically in
a.)diagnosing skin cancer
b.)estimating the extent of a burn
c.)estimating how serious a cancer
estimating the extent of a burn
all the following are functions of the skin except:
a.)excretion of body wastes
c.)protection from mechanical damage
d.) site of vitamin A synthesis
site of viatmin A synthesis
the skin has two distinct regions. the superficial layer is the _______ and the underlying connective tissue is the _____.
epidermis and dermis
the most superficial layer of the epidermis is the:
thick skin of the epidermis contains ____layers.
____ is a yellow_orange pigment found in the stratum corneum and the hypodermis.
these cells produce a brown to black pigment that colors the skin and protects DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage.the cells are:
true or false
nails originate from the epidermis
the portion of a hair that projects from the scalp surface is known as the:
the ducts of _____ glands usually empty into a hair follicle but may also open directly on the skin surface
_____glands are found primarily in the genital and axillary areas
four protective functions of the skin are:
prevents bacterial invasion
protects against thermal damage
protects against UV radiation
layer of translucent cells in thick skin containing dead kerantinocytes
two layers containing dead cells
stratum corneum and stratum lucidum
dermal layer responsible for fingerprints
vascular region of the skin
dermis as a whole, papillary layer and reticular layer
major skin area as a whole that produces derivatives (nails and hair)
epidermis as a whole
epidermal layer exhibiting the most rapid cell division
layer including scale like dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off
layer of mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments
has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers
dermis as a whole, reticular layer
location of melanocytes and tactile (merkel) cells
area where weblike pre-keratin filaments first appear
layer of areolar connective tissue
the tough water repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called
the pigments melanin and _______ contribute to skin color
a localized concentration of melanin is referred to as a _______
______ granules contain glycolipids that prevent water loss from the skin.
fibers in the dermis are produced by:
glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the __________glands.
Sebaceous and apocrine sweat
phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called:
dendritic or langerhan cells
a unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is:
tactile or merkel disc
what layer is present in thick skin but not in the thin skin?
what cell to cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together?
what substance is manufactured in the skin and plays a role i calcium absorption elsewhere in the body?
list the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin
free nerve endings (for pain, tempt), tactile corpuscles( for touch in hairless skin), lamellar corpuscles (for pressure)
define cyanotic: (cyanosis)
what does its presence imply?
a blue cast to the skin
inadequate oxygenation of the blood
produces an accumulation of oily material that is known as a blackhead.
tiny muscles, attached to hair follicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold.
sweat glands with a role in temperature control
sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues
less numerous type of sweat producing gland, found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions.
found everywhere on the body except the palms of hands and soles of feet (two from keys)
primarily dead/keratinized cells (two from key)
hair and nail
specialized nerve endings that respond to temperature, touch...
secretes a lubricant for hair and skin
"sports" a lunule and cuticle
with what substance in the bond paper does the iodine painted on the skin react?
what organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat gland?
nervous system (sympathetic division)
name three common fingerprint patterns:
loops, arches and whorls