Unit 3 cards

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 6, 19, 27
updated 6 years ago by Alex_McKay
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1

How can you manipulate fluidity of the cell? Name 4 ways.

Temperature effect

Saturation increases and decreases fluidity

Length of acyl groups, longer decreases fluidity

Cholesterol effect, it is a buffer and tries to keep it at the normal state

2

What 3 major components make up the ‘mosaic’ of the plasma membrane?

Phospholipids

Proteins

Carbohydrates

3

Which of the following organelles is NOT a member of the endomembrane system?

A. Golgi apparatus

B. Vacuoles

C. Peroxisomes

D. Lysosomes

C. Peroxisomes

4

What is the defining difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do

5

Which of the following is involved in protein synthesis?

A. Ribosomes

B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

C. Mitochondria

D. Nucleolus

A. Ribosomes

6

Which organelle receives, processes, and ships proteins?

A. The rough endoplasmic reticulum

B. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum

C. The Golgi apparatus

D. The mitochondria

A. The rough endoplasmic reticulum

7

Which statement best describes the lysosomes?

A. Powerhouse of the cell

B. Low pH of 5

C. Protein synthesis

D. Site of phospholipid synthesis

B. Low pH of 5

8

6. Which of the following is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?

A. Mitochondria

B. Plasma membrane

C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum

D. Plasmodesmata

D. Plasmodesmata

9

Where is the DNA material of a Prokaryote housed?

in nucleoid

10

Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles, but they do have protein based organelles, name 4.

Ribosomes

Cell wall

Glycocalyx (Capsule)

Flagellum

11

Where is the genetic material of a eukaryote found?

nucleus

12

What three things make up a nucleus?

Chromatin

Nucleolus

Nuclear Envelope

13

What can be found in a plant cell but not in an animal cell?

chloroplast

Central vacuole

Tonoplast

Cell wall

plasmodesmata

14

What three things make up the cytoskeleton?

Microfilaments

Intermediate Filaments

Microtubules

15

What can be found in an animal cell and not a plant cell?

Lysosome

Centriole

Flagella (some plant sperm)

16

What does the Nuclear Envelope consist of?

Outer Membrane

Inner Membrane

Nuclear Lamina

Ribosomes

Pore complexes

17

Gram Positive

Gram Positive – Crystal violet is trapped and cells appear purple. Bacteria that have a thick peptidoglycan layer. This is a simpler cell wall structure

18

Gram negative

(Crystal violet washes out of cells so they appear red or pink.) Bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer trapped beneath an outer membrane. Outer membrane contains lipopolysaccharides which can be toxic or cause immune response. Outer membrane resists antibiotic treatments.

19
  1. Decomposers – Many bacteria serve to break down and recycle dead organic matter so it can be used again.

Many bacteria serve to break down and recycle dead organic matter so it can be used again.

20
  1. Methanogens – Typically Archaea, release methane as a by-product of anaerobic respiration. (CO2àH2). Applications in sewer treatment, energy creation, major greenhouse gas, swamp gas.

Typically Archaea, release methane as a by-product of anaerobic respiration. (CO2àH2). Applications in sewer treatment, energy creation, major greenhouse gas, swamp gas.

21
  1. Nitrogen fixers- N2 is the most plentiful form of nitrogen but it is generally useless to us biochemically. Some prokaryotes species can metabolize N2 into NH3 or NO2, sources that are useful to eukaryotes.

N2 is the most plentiful form of nitrogen but it is generally useless to us biochemically. Some prokaryotes species can metabolize N2 into NH3 or NO2, sources that are useful to eukaryotes.

22

Bacteria

More common, pathogens, peptidoglycans

23

Archaea

extremophiles, more closely related to eukaryotes

24

Integral protein

will go part way or all the way through the membrane

Trans membrane

anchored

25

Peripheral protein

Doesn't go into the membrane

26

glycolipid

sugar on lipid

oligosaccahride

27

glycoprotein

sugar on protein

oligosaccahride

28

Difference of Eukaryote and Prokaryote

Eu: Nucleus, Membrane bound organelles

Pro: Nucleoid, no membrane bound organelles

29

Parasitism

one species benefits (usually the symbiont) while the other is harmed but not killed

30

Commensalism –

one species benefits the other is not harmed or helped

31

Mutualism

both host and symbiont benefit

32

Symbiosis –

an ecological situation in which two organisms live in close contact with each other. Host is larger organism. Symbiont is the smaller organism

33

Flagella

Microtubules serve as tracks for motor proteins

  1. Kinesin Motors move away from centrosome
  2. Dynein Motors move toward centrosome

Microtubles and dynine

34
  1. Mutation

this is the ultimate source of genetic variation. High reproduction rates, large populations, and short generation times allow bacteria to mutate quickly. Much of the population may be lost at anyone time but they are quickly replaced by more “fit” reproducers.

35

Transformation-

Bacteria have a built in mechanism for taking up and incorporating DNA from the outside. Survival mechanism. Useful in biotechnology

36

Transduction

The process of prokaryotic genetic recombination mediated by phage infections

37

Conjugation

Using pili, two prokaryotes (from different species even) can exchange plasmids. The donating plasmid must carry the F-factor in one of its plasmids or in its genome.

38
  1. Nucleus
  1. Ultrastructure: Double membrane (two lipid by-layers) called nuclear envelope, Nucleolus – dark spot in nucleus where ribosomes are made, Pore complexes – big transport tunnels through membranes.
  2. Function: Houses cellular DNA
39
  1. Rough ER
  1. Ultrastructure: Extensive network of flattened sacs, Continuous with smooth ER, ribosomes bound to surface give a “rough” appearance
  2. Function: Site for making membrane proteins and exported proteins, oligosaccharide tags added to proteins in lumen
40
  1. Smooth ER
  • Ultrastructure: Extensive network of tubules, Continuous with rough ER, no ribosomes
  • Function: phospholipid synthesis, Ca2+ ion storage
41

Golgi Apparatus

  • Ultrastructure: Cisternae – flattened membranous stacks, 5-12 distinct compartments,
  • Function: Polysaccharide and oligosaccharide synthesis, Shipping & receiving center
42

Lysosome

  • Ultrastructure: small to medium spherical organelles
  • Function: breakdown of macromolecules. Acidic Internal pH 5 activates acid hydrolases. Acid hydrolases = enzyme that break down macromolecules into component subunits at acidic pH.
43
  1. Microtubules
  • Hollow rigid tubes, 25 nm diameter (steel pipes), polymer of subunits
  • Organized from common point called Centrosome (centriole + proteins)
  • (-) found near centrosome, (+) found distant from center
  • Microtubules are dynamic continually grow and shrink
  • Form compression resisting girders
  • Microtubule function/locations – Spindle apparatus (pulls apart chromosome in cell division), Organelle structure, cilia and flagellum 9figure 4.12)
  • Microtubules serve as tracks for motor proteins
    1. Kinesin Motors move away from centrosome
    2. Dynein Motors move toward centrosome
  • Helps with motility by two tubes together and one pulling down and causing the other to bend.
44
  1. Microfilaments (Actin Filaments)
    1. Two stranded, spiral filament (7 nm) (nylon rope), polymer of subunits
    2. Tension resisting network around cell interior (called cell cortex)
    3. Directional (+) end and (–) end.
    4. Dynamic – grows and shrinks
    5. Work in combination with myosin motor
    6. Location/Function
      1. Muscle fibers are made from actin and myosin bundles
      2. Cleavage Furrow – contractile ring splits cytoplasm in cell division
  • Microvilli – tiny projection of plasma membrane increase surface area
  1. Lamellopodia – the “oozing” effect of ameboid movement
  2. Cytoplasmic streaming – cytoplasmic jetstream found in plants

Helps with motility by the hand grabbing motion or worm like motion

45
  1. Intermediate filaments
  • 32 stranded twisted filament (10nm) (steel cable)
  • Most stable of the three fibers
  • Most diverse – at least 32 different types
  • Form a stable skeletal structure throughout the cell
  • Important locations – nuclear lamina, keratins (Skin hair, nails, claws) axons.
  • Not directional, no known motor proteins
  • Tension resistance
46

Vacuoles

  • Ultrastructure: Very large single membrane organelles. Much larger than vesicles, can occupy up to 80% of plant cell volume
  • Functions:
    1. Storage of pigments, ions, waste, building blocks, defensive compounds
    2. Central vacuole in plants acts as a hydraulic press causing rigidity or turgor pressure. Central vacuole membrane called Tonoplast
    3. Phagocytosis – Vacuoles created when a cell “swallows” a large particle or bacterium for digestion.
47

Endomembrane system

Collection of organelles that are all related through direct contact or vesicular traffic. Includes nuclear envelope, ER, Golgi, Lysosomes, Plasma membrane, most vacuoles and vesicles