Surgical Technology for the Surgical Technologist: A Positive Care Approach: Surgical Pharmacology and Anesthesia Chapter 9 (Nicola) Flashcards


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1

What is the study of medications and their actions, including drug origins, properties, and uses

Pharmacology

2

What is defined as a substance used for the diagnosis, treatment, cure, mitigation, or prevention (prophylaxis) of disease or a condition

Drug

3

Who has approved and standardized for safety, dosage accuracy, and effectiveness after undergoing several phases of formal independent testing.

FDA

4

What refers to an agent that stimulates or prolongs the response of a drug or a physiologic action

agonist

5

What is lack of recall

amnesia

6

What is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a foreign protein or other specific substance

anaphylaxis

7

What is an absence of sensation

anesthesia

8

What refers to an agent used to block the action of another drug or physiological action without producing any effect of its own

antagonist

9

What refers to an agent used to block parasympathetic effects such as salivation and bradycardia

antimuscarinic/anticholingergic

10

What is the pulse taken at the apex of the heart

apical pulse

11

What is drawing in or out by suction

aspiration

12

What is the making of drugs in the laboratory using genetic engineering; also referred to as recombinant DNA technology

biotechnology

13

What is the name for a reason why a specific procedure or drug may be undesirable or improper in a particular situation

contraindication

14

What is an ultrasonic device used to identify and assess vascular status of peripheral arteries and veins by magnifying the sound of the blood moving through the vessel

Doppler

15

What is the nonproprietary name for a drug that is often a shortened version of the chemical name and may include a reference to the intended use

generic

16

What is the reactions in the body that act and counteract to maintain the body in a normal physiological state

homeostasis

17

What is the altered state of consciousness that may be achieved by suggestion of another, an individual’s own concentration, or with the use of a substance

hypnosis

18

What is a reason to perform a specific procedure or prescribe a certain drug

indication

19

What is the second phase of general anesthesia, in which the patient is given induction drugs and intubated

induction

20

What is the name for within a joint

intra-articular

21

What is a sudden involuntary contraction of the larynx capable of causing partial or total occlusion of the larynx

laryngospasm

22

What is the acronym for
Nothing by mouth; Latin acronym for nil per os

NPO

23

What is taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract, as by intravenous or intramuscular injection.

parenteral

24

What is the interaction of drug molecules with target cells, resulting in biochemical and physiological actions

pharmacodynamics

25

What is the name for behind the eyeball or pons

retrobulbar

26

What agent produces a soothing or quieting effect but does not cause the person to sleep

sedative

27

What (as pertaining to anesthesia) is an agent that is applied to the surface of the skin or anatomical structure (such as the eye) to produce a loss of feeling or sensation in the area of application; blocks the nerve conduction of superficial nerves

topical

28

What is a group of liquids that easily evaporate and, when inhaled, produce general anesthesia through interaction with the CNS

volatile agents

29

What is the drug source:
morphine sulfate
digitalis

Plants
At one time, the majority of drugs originated from plants; a number of plant-based medications still in use today

30

What is the drug source:
heparin sodium
thrombin

Animals
Nonsynthetic hormones are derived from animal sources, including human sources; drugs obtained from cows are referred to as bovine and those from pigs as porcine

31

What is the drug source:
calcium
iron
magnesium
zinc

Minerals
Derived from the earth, minerals, and mineral salts

32

What is the drug source:
meperidine sulfate (Demerol)
aminoglycoside
antibiotics

Laboratory synthesis
The majority of drugs used today are manufactured in the laboratory

33

What is the drug source:
A process known as genetic engineering hepatitis B vaccine

Biotechnology (laboratory)or recombinant DNA technology

34

What are drugs that are manufactured totally from laboratory chemicals

Synthetic drugs

35

What are drugs that are natural substances that are chemically altered

Semi-synthetic drugs

36

What involves the study of the interaction of drug molecules with the target cells of living tissue

Pharmacodynamics

37

What is the drug source:
What technology artificially introduces foreign DNA into the DNA of a specific organism; the two types of DNA combine and the new DNA and its specific protein are replicated in the daughter cells of the organism

Recombinant DNA

38

What is the study of the movement of drugs through the body, involving absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion

Pharmacokinetics

39

What may be intentional (beneficial) or undesirable (detrimental)

Types of drug interactions

40

What can occur when two substances are prescribed concurrently, causing a modification of the action of one or both drugs.

Drug interactions

41

One causes an action, and one blocks the action of the causing the opposite action of the first.

Agonists vs Antagonists

42

What occurs when a drug enhances the effect of another substance. by binding to a specific receptor site in the body, producing an alteration in biological function

Agonists

43

What are two examples of agonists

Synergists and additives are

44

What agent acts in combination to produce a stronger or more powerful effect than would be demonstrated if each agent was administered individually, the action of one agent increases the action of the other agent when delivered together

Synergistic Agents

45

The use of midazolam (a sedative) and fentanyl (a narcotic analgesic) permits the use of lower concentrations of volatile gases during the administration of general inhalation anesthesia is an example of what?

Example of synergistic agent

46

Medication ........ alter some aspect of the action of the original agent.

Additive Agents

47

The addition of epinephrine to the local anesthetic lidocaine to prolong the anesthetic action is an example of what?

An example of an additive

48

What binds to the agonist’s receptor site, preventing the agonist from binding there and causing its desired effect. This results in an absence of the agonist’s action, referred to as agonist reversal.

Antagonists

49

This interaction is demonstrated when flumazinil Mazicon®) is given to reverse the sedative effects of midazolam HCl (Versed®)is an example of what?

An example of an antagonist

50

What action of a a medication describes the application or situation for which the medication is used and the timing of the effects commonly associated with a given medication and dosage.

Therapeutic action

51

What is listing of the medical conditions that the medication is known to treat. The dosage, and delivery form may vary according to the patient’s medical condition, weight, and age

Indication

52

What are a list of circumstances or medical conditions under which the medication should not be used

contraindications

53

What is the period of time required for the effects of the medication to begin to be demonstrated in the patient

Onset

54

What is the period of time when the maximum effect(s) of the medication are demonstrated in the patient.

Peak Effect

55

What is the overall period of time when the effects of a medication are demonstrated in the patient.

Duration

56

The concentration or dose of a medication used to produce the desired result without producing harmful effects is referred to as the medications ....

Therapeutic effect

57

An expected, undesirable, but tolerable effect of a medication. These can include symptoms such as dry mouth, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness or drowsiness is referred to as the medications ....

Side effect

58

An undesirable and potentially harmful effect of a medication that can lead to organ damage or failure is referred to as the medications ....

.

Adverse effect

59

An undesirable and unacceptable effect of a medication. The effect can include the promotion of growth of cancerous tumors (carcinogens) or the development of birth defects (teratogens)is referred to as the medications ....

Toxic effect

60

A reduction in the effect of a medication results in an increase in dosage in order to achieve the desired effect is referred to as the medications ....

Tolerance

61

A physical or psychological dependency on the effect of a medication is referred to as the medications ....

Addiction

62

What is the term used to describe the metabolic processing of a drug within the body

Pharmacokinetics

63

What does the processes of pharmacokinetics involve

absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.

64

1. Absorption occurs at site of administration
2. Drug transferred from higher to lower concentration until both sides of cell membrane is equal

Absorption via passive transport
Requires no energy

65

What is required for a limited number of drugs. An energy source in the form of a cation, such as sodium, is required to carry the substance from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration.

Active Transport

66

What can be added to a drug preparation to slow absorption.

The vasoconstrictor epinephrine

67

What is distributed to the target cells for action, to the liver for biotransformation, and to the liver or kidneys for elimination

Distribution of medication

pharmacokinetics

68

What is also affected or limited by plasma protein binding, tissue binding, and certain barriers established by the body

Placental barrier and the blood–brain barrier.

69

What are the steps involved in Pharmacokinetics

Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Excreetion

70

What action of a drug most often occurs in the liver, but other tissues, including the intestinal mucosa, lungs, kidneys, and blood plasma, may be involved

Biotransformation or metabolism
pharmacokinetics

71

Several medications are converted to an active substance by the liver, but the main function of the liver in drug metabolism is to break down the drug molecules in preparation for excretion.

Biotransformation or metabolism

pharmacokinetics

72

What is the main function of the liver in drug metabolism

It is to break down the drug molecules in preparation for excretion

pharmacokinetics

73

What are the products of metabolic breakdown called

Metabolites
(They are smaller, inactive substances)

pharmacokinetics

74

The effect of medication in the body continues until it is biotransformed and/or excreted. The kidneys are primarily responsible for the filtration of medications from the blood and elimination of medications and metabolites as part of urine formation and excretion. Some medications and metabolites may be eliminated fecally, via sweat or saliva, or exhaled.

Excretion

pharmacokinetics

75

Some medications are eliminated in breast milk, which may affect the breastfed baby

Excretion

pharmacokinetics

76

Placed between the layers of the skin

Intradermal

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

77

Subcutaneous (SC or SQ)

Placed into the adipose (fat) tissue layer under the skin

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

78

Oral (PO, meaning per os or by mouth)

Placed in the mouth and swallowed

Enteral: Through the gastrointestinal tract

79

Rectal

Placed into the rectum

Enteral: Through the gastrointestinal tract

80

Intramuscular (IM)

Placed within a muscle

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

81

Intravenous (IV)

Placed directly into a vein

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

82

Intra-articular

Placed within a joint

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

83

Intrathecal

Placed into the subarachnoid space

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

84

Intracardiac

Placed into the heart

Parenteral: Other than through the gastrointestinal tract; by injection

85

Buccal

Placed between the cheek and the teeth/gums until it is dissolved and/or absorbed

Topical: Applied to the skin or mucous membrane to provide a localized or systemic effect

86

Sublingual

Placed under the tongue until it is dissolved and/or absorbed

Topical: Applied to the skin or mucous membrane to provide a localized or systemic effect

87

Instillation

Placed in a hollow or cavity, such as the conjunctival fold or bladder

Topical: Applied to the skin or mucous membrane to provide a localized or systemic effect

88

Inhalation

Directly administered to the respiratory tract, usually as a gas or aerosol

Topical: Applied to the skin or mucous membrane to provide a localized or systemic effect

89

Which Drug Publication:
Contains information on single drugs and the formulas for drug mixtures; includes drug testing and purity information; lists drugs using generic names; lists medications no longer included in the USP

National Formulary

90

Which Drug Publication:
Contains information on medications used in current medical practice; lists drugs using generic names; includes the medication source, properties, category/classification, dosage range, and therapeutic dosages

Pharmacopeia of the United States (USP)

91

Which Drug Publication:
Presents medical information arranged in therapeutic or pharmacological classes according to generic name

American Hospital Formulary Service Index

92

Which Drug Publication:
Is not an official pharmacological listing, but commonly used by physicians for referencing medications for prescription; medications are listed alphabetically by manufacturer using their brand names

Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR)

93

Which Drug Publication:
Contains The National Patient Safety Goals include policies on “Look-alike/sound-alike medications” and the “Official Do Not Use” abbreviation list

The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals

94

Oxygen and nitrous oxide are included in this Forms of Drug Preparation category

Gas

Forms of Drug Preparation
(Category)

95

What is this drug preparation called
Drug (solute) is dissolved in a liquid (solvent)

Liquid - Solution

Forms of Drug Preparation

96

This category has a solution and suspension preparation

Liquid

Forms of Drug Preparation

97

What is this drug preparation called
Solution prepared with water

Aqueous - Liquid

Forms of Drug Preparation

98

What is this drug preparation called
Sweetened aqueous solution

Syrup - Liquid

Forms of Drug Preparation

99

What is this drug preparation called
Solution prepared with alcohol

Tincture - Liquid

Forms of Drug Preparation

100

What is this drug preparation called
Sweetened alcohol solution

Elixir - Liquid

Form of Drug Preparation

101

What is this drug preparation called
Powder —even though it may be in the powdered state, contained within a capsule, or compressed into tablet form—some powders must have liquid added (called reconstitution) prior to use—troches or lozenges also fall into this category

Solid

Forms of Drug Preparation

102

What is a combination of two liquids that cannot mix—droplets of one liquid are dispersed (suspended) throughout the other

Emulsion

103

What is this drug preparation called
Creams, foams, gels, lotions, ointments, and suppositories

Semisolid

Forms of Drug Preparation

104

What are those drugs with a high potential to cause psychological and/or physical dependence and abuse

Controlled substances

105

Controlled Substances - Which Class?
Includes substances for which there is a high abuse potential and no current approved medical use

Schedule Or Class I
heroin, marijuana, LSD, other hallucinogens, and certain opiates and opium derivatives

106

Controlled Substances - Which Class?
Includes substances that have a high abuse potential and a high ability to produce physical and/or psychological dependence and for which there is a current approved or acceptable medical use

Schedule Or Class II
morphine sulfate, oxycodone, hydromor-phone, meperidine, codeine, anabolic steroids

107

Controlled Substances - Which Class?
Includes substances for which there is less potential for abuse than drugs in Schedule II and for which there is a current approved medical use

Schedule Or Class III
hydrocodone, codeine, and others in combination with other drugs

108

Controlled Substances - Which Class?
Includes drugs for which there is a relatively low abuse potential and for which there is a current approved medical use

Schedule Or Class IV
benzodiazepines (Valium, Ativan)

109

Controlled Substances - Which Class?
Drugs in this category consist mainly of preparations containing limited amounts of certain narcotic drugs for use to treat coughing and diarrhea, drugs may be bought without a prescription by an individual at least 18 years of age.

Schedule Or Class V
cough syrups with codeine; diphenoxylate (Lomotil)

110

What medication information does the surgical technologist need in the surgical setting

names, classifications, actions, indications, uses in the surgical setting, and dosages for use in the surgical setting.

111

What is the name assigned to a medication and copyrighted by the manufacturer for marketing. There may be slight differences in the chemical preparation used by each manufacturer, making the preparation under each trade name slightly different

Trade, brand, or proprietary name
The trade name is prominently displayed on the medication label.

112

What is the nonproprietary name for a drug. It is often a shortened version of the chemical name. It may be produced by several manufacturers

Generic name
The generic name is prominently displayed on the medication label.

113

What is the precise chemical composition and molecular structure of the medication, often complex and difficult to use.

Chemical name
Chemical name is not included on the medication label, but is included in the package insert

114

The theory of drug–receptor interaction states that the active substance in the drug has an affinity for a specific chemical constituent of a cell. The interaction occurs on a molecular level with a specific receptor on the cell surface or within the cell to produce the pharmacological response.

Theory on ways that a drug produces its effect

115

The theory of drug–enzyme interaction states that a drug may combine with a specific enzyme to inhibit the action of the enzyme or alter the cellular response to the enzyme

Theory on ways that a drug produces its effect

116

The theory of nonspecific drug interaction, is related to a drug that does not act by either of the two previously described methods and is considered nonspecific in its interaction.

Theory on ways that a drug produces its effect

117

What is commonly expressed in a ratio of medication concentration per kilograms of patient body weight (mg/kg).

A medication dosage

118

What is the ratio of solute to solvent, the two components of a solution (medication)

The concentration

119

What % of sodium chloride is typically needed to reconstitute powder to solvent for injection

commonly 0.9% sodium chloride

120

The dose or dosage is documented in the patient’s record as part of the ........ of medication administration.

“sixth right”

121

What is the term for the medication’s use in the surgical setting

The application

122

What in concentrations of less than 1:100,000, can be injected as a vasoconstrictor, but in concentrations of 1:1,000, it should only be used topically to prevent serious patient complications, including death.

Epinephrine

123

In order to calculate medication dosages on the sterile field, the surgical technologist needs to understand two basic concepts:

Concentration and cumulative dose

124

In order to calculate concentration, you need to convert the solution into units of medications per one unit of fluid; in other words, solute to solvent. This is accomplished using the following formula:

A : B = C : D

125

If the label reads 500 milligrams per 5 milliliters:

card image

500 : 5 = X : 1 (multiply the means and extremes)
500 = 5X
Reduce the fraction by dividing both sides by “5”
100 = X

126

When diluting a medication by adding more solvent to the solute, the concentration changes. For example, when 1 milliliter of heparin sodium 10,000 units per mL is added to 1,000 milliliters of normal saline for injection, the concentration of this medication is 10,000 units per 1,000 mL and needs to be converted using the previous formula

10,000 : 1,000 = X : 1 (multiply the means by extremes)
10,000 = 1,000X
Reduce the fraction by dividing both sides by “1,000”
10 = X or 10 units per mL

127

1 meter = 100 centimeters
1 meter = 1,000 millimeters
1 meter = 1,000 millimeters
1 millimeter = 1,000 microns

Length
Metric Conversion

128

1 millimeter = 1,000 microns
1 gram = 1,000 milligrams
1 gram = 1,000 milligrams
1 milligram = 1,000 micrograms

Weight
Metric Conversion

129

1 milligram = 1,000 micrograms
1 liter = 1,000 milliliters

Volume
Metric Conversion

130

What system do Pharmacists sometimes use.
This system is based on the weight of a grain of wheat. In this system, 12 ounces (rather than the more commonly known 16 ounces) equals one pound. The units of measure are the minim for volume and the grain for weight

Apothecary system

131

Volume
•Minim = m
•Dram = dr
•Drop = gtt
•Ounce = oz
•Pint = pt

Apothecary system Volume

132

•1 meter = approximately 1 yard or 36.37 inches
•2.54 centimeters = 1 inch

Length
Measurement Equivalents
Apothecary system Volume

133

Volume
•1 milliliter = 1 cubic centimeter
•1 fluid ounce = 30 milliliters
•1 gallon = 4 liters or 4000 milliliters
•1 quart = 1,000 milliliters or 1 liter
•1 pint = 500 milliliters

Volume
Measurement Equivalents
Apothecary system Volume

134

Weight
•1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds
•30grams = 1 ounce
•60 milligrams = 1 grain

Weight
Measurement Equivalents
Apothecary system Volume

135

•The “right” patient
•The “right” drug
•The “right” dose
•The “right” route of administration
•The “right” time and frequency
•The “right” documentation, including labeling

The Six “Rights” of Medication Administration

136

What are glass containers that require the top to be broken off to access the contents
Extra caution must be used when handling glass ampules to ensure that glass does not contaminate the medication upon opening the ampule

Ampule
Medication Identification

137

What are plastic or glass container that have a rubber stopper at the top that is held in place with a metal retaining ring—may contain liquid, powder, or compressed powder

Vial:Medication Identification

138

All drugs must be labeled by the manufacturer and the label must contain the following information
•Drug name (trade and generic)
•Manufacturer
•Strength
•Amount
•Expiration date
•Route of administration
•Lot number
•Handling/storage precautions and warnings
•Instructions for reconstitution (if applicable)
•Controlled substances classification (if applicable)

card image

Drug labels by the manufacturer Must contain...

139

Parts of a needle

card image

140

Circulator cleans the stopper at the top of the vial using an alcohol wipe and holds the vial at an angle while the surgical technologist inserts a hypodermic needle attached to the syringe through the stopper and withdraws the medication.

Medications from a vial may be transferred by one of four methods

141

Circulator inserts a sterile medication vial transfer device (a long straw-like device with a spiked end) into the vial stopper and pours the medication into a container on the back table.

Medications from a vial may be transferred by one of four methods

142

Circulator medication into a syringe using the hypodermic needle, and ejects the mediation into the container on the back table.

Medications from a vial may be transferred by one of four methods

143

•Circulator removes the metal retaining ring and rubber stopper and pours the medication into the container on the back table.

Medications from a vial may be transferred by one of four methods

144

Circulator removes the top of the ampule, draws the medication into a syringe using the hypodermic needle, and ejects the medication into the container on the back table.

Medications from an ampule may be transferred using one of two methods:

145

Circulator removes the top of the ampule and holds it at a slight angle while the surgical technologist withdraws the medication into a syringe via hypodermic needle

Medications from an ampule may be transferred using one of two methods

146

What methods are squeezed by the circulator onto a towel, into a small cup or directly onto a sterile dressing material on the back table.

Medications from a tube

147

Surgical-technologist-crafted labels using a sterile marking pen and a blank sterile label. If blank labels are not available, what may be used

a sterile skin closure tape (Steri-Strip™) is a possible alternative
LABEL MAKESHIFTS

148

What is ratio of solute to solvent

Concentration

149

What is the overall amount of medication delivered to the patient

Dose

150

What can also be expressed as a decimal by moving the decimal point two places to the left of the written number to indicate hundredths

%. Percentages
75% = 0.75 or 75/100

151

Examples of percentage calculations

•15 is what percentage of 30?
15/30 = 0.50 or 50%

•What is 20% of 80?
Change the 20% to a decimal and multiply by 80:
20% = 0.20 × 80 = 16

152

What temperature reference points are frequently referenced in the OR

1. Boiling point of water, 212°F or 100°C 2. Freezing point of water, 32°F or 0°C
3. Normal body temperature, 98.6°F or 37°C

153

The conversion formulas for converting between Fahrenheit and Celsius scales are

(°F − 32) 5/9 = °C

(°C × 9/5) + 32 = °F

154

What are the three classifications of drugs that are associated with surgical interventions of the female reproductive tract

Oxytocics, vasopressin, and immunoglobin

155

What drugs are used to induce labor and control uterine hemorrhage associated with pregnancy and childbirth.

Oxytocic drugs

156

What drug is used to induce or continue labor, contract the uterus following vaginal or cesarean birth, and as an adjunct in the treatment of incomplete or spontaneous abortion, planned abortion, and to control uterine bleeding following an abortion

Oxytocin (Pitocin, Syntocinon)

157

What is the second medication used in gynecologic surgery involving the cervix. It is injected around the cervix during a vaginal hysterectomy, cervical conization, or into a uterine fibroid during myomectomy to reduce intraoperative bleeding.

Vasopressin (Pitressin)

158

What immunoglobin, is administered to Rh-negative women who are pregnant to prevent sensitization of the maternal immune system when pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus

RhoGam
Maternal Rh antibodies can cross the placenta during subsequent pregnancies, where the antibodies destroy fetal circulating red blood cells.

159

What are the routine pharmacological supplies used in orthopedic surgery

Antibiotics, hemostatic agents, and steroids

160

What drugs are mixed with irrigation solutions or injected into the bags of solution used during irrigation and/or pulsed lavage of the surgical wound.

Polymixin, bacitracin, and cephalosporin antibiotics

161

What agents are used in orthopedic surgery include absorbable gelatin sponge (Gelfoam), microfibrillary collagen (Avitene), thrombin (Thrombinar), and bone wax

Hemostatic agents
“Chemical Methods of Hemostasis”

162

What drugs are used for their anti-inflammatory action. Dexamethasone (Decadron), a short-acting corticosteroid; dexamethasone long-acting (Decadron LA); or betamethasone (Celestone),

Steroids

163

What drug is a long-acting corticosteroid, may be administered to reduce inflammation in a joint area caused by trauma

Betamethasone (Celestone)

164

What intravascular irrigation is commonly used during cardiac and peripheral vascular procedures,

Heparinized saline
Dilute and concentrated heparin solutions may be required, and must be labeled accordingly

165

Additional medications used during vascular procedures include
contrast media for ........

arteriography (Xray)

166

Additional medications used during vascular procedures include:
opical papaverine HCl (Papaverine) for .......

dilating blood vessels

167

Additional medications used during vascular procedures include:
lidocaine HCl for .........

local anesthesia

168

Additional medications used during vascular procedures include:
oxidized cellulose (Oxicel, Surgicel) for ........

hemostasis

169

Drugs and solutions used during neurosurgical procedures include:
antibiotics in warm saline for .........

irrigation
neurosurgical procedures

170

Drugs and solutions used during neurosurgical procedures include: heparinized saline solution for ..........

intravascular irrigation
neurosurgical procedures

171

Drugs and solutions used during neurosurgical procedures include:
contrast media for .........

cerebral arteriography
neurosurgical procedures

172

Drugs and solutions used during neurosurgical procedures include: topical papaverine HCl (Papaverine) for ............ during procedures involving cerebral vasculature

dilating blood vessels
neurosurgical procedures

173

Drugs and solutions used during neurosurgical procedures include:
polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implants (Gliadel Wafers) for ........

topical placement onto the post-resection tumor bed for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme

neurosurgical procedures

174

Drugs and solutions used during Ophthalmic Surgery:
What agents cause the iris to contract, resulting in dilation of the pupil referred to as mydriasis

Mydriatics and cyclopleoic
Ophthalmic procedures

175

Drugs and solutions used during Ophthalmic Surgery:
The commonly used mydriatic agent is called .....

phenylephrine HCl (Neo-Syne.hrine).
Ophthalmic procedures

176

Drugs and solutions used during Ophthalmic Surgery:
The commonly used cycloplegic agents include

Tropicamide (Mydriacyl), cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl), and atropine sulfate (Atropisol)
Ophthalmic procedures

177

What agents act on the iris, resulting in iris relaxation and, therefore, pupil constriction.

Miotic
Ophthalmic procedures

178

Drugs and solutions used during Ophthalmic Surgery:
Miotic agents include ........

Pilocarpine HCl (Pilocar, Isopto Carpine) and carbachol (Miostat).
Ophthalmic procedures

179

What drugs also facilitate the drainage of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork of the canal of Schlemm, thus decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP), making them useful for the treatment of increased IOP due to glaucoma

Miotic drugs
Ophthalmic procedures

180

What ophthalmic agents are used to expand the anterior chamber and prevent injury to the corneal endothelium and surrounding tissues during cataract extraction

Viscoelastic/viscosurgical (can also be used to replace vitreous humor)
Ophthalmic procedures

181

Drugs and solutions used during Ophthalmic Surgery:
What are commonly used viscoelastic agents.

Chondroitin sulfate-sodium hyaluronate (Viscoat) and sodium hyaluronate (Healon, Amvisc)
Ophthalmic procedures

182

Drugs and solutions used during Ophthalmic Surgery:
What are the most commonly used topical anesthetics in ophthalmic surgery

Tetracaine (Pontocaine) and proparacaine (Ophthaine
Ophthalmic procedures

183

In ophthalmic procedures which anesthesia may be necessary for some procedures to block both sensory and motor nerve function

Retrobulbar
Ophthalmic procedures

184

Which anesthesia is accomplished by injecting the area around the optic nerve with a combination of lidocaine HCl and bupivacaine, both without epinephrine

Retrobulbar anesthesia

185

What irrigation fluid is used during ophthalmic surgery to keep the cornea from drying out

Balanced salt solution

186

What is a sterile mix of beeswax, the body recognizes as a foreign body, and can reject or react to

Bone wax

187

What is used in thoracic surgery when the sternum is split, in neurosurgical procedures when a craniotomy is performed, and for orthopedic and otorhinolaryngologic (ENT) procedures

Bone wax

188

What sponge is placed over an area of bleeding, and fibrin is deposited initiating clot formation. It may also be soaked in epinephrine to enhance vasoconstriction

Absorbable Gelatin Sponge

189

Absorbable Gelatin Sponge is absorbed by the body in how many days

30 days

190

What collagen is soluble, and as hemostasis occurs, it is absorbed and eliminated from the body. It should be kept dry to avoid it becoming sticky

Microfibrillar Collagen (Avitene)

191

What products are available in the form of pads (Nu-Knit, Fibrillar, and SNoW) or fabric (Surgicel—Original). Blood clots rapidly form in the presence of these products. Absorbed and eliminated from body

Oxidized Cellulose

192

What is often used to control cervical or nasal bleeding. It is applied either in stick form as a caustic pencil or in solutions of 0.01% to 10% silver nitrate.

Silver Nitrate

193

What is a potent vasoconstrictor and is often combined with local anesthetic agents or with Gelfoam to aid in local hemostasis. It is absorbed rapidly by the body but provides good localized hemostasis.

Epinephrine

194

What is an enzyme that results from the activation of prothrombin, it is of bovine (cow) and never injected. It should be discarded if not used in several hours

Thrombin

195

Estimated Blood Loss
Calculated by a wet/dry formula, sponges used, suction canisters etc

EBL

196

All components of blood—not commonly used. Used to treat trauma-induced hemorrhage

Whole blood

197

What is from 1 unit of whole blood after most of plasma is removed. Used to restore oxygen-carrying capacity

Packed red blood cells (PRBCs)

198

What is the fluid component of blood containing clotting factors removed from 1 unit of whole blood Restores clotting factors; usually 1 unit of FFP is given for every 4 units of PRBCs

Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP)

199

What are removed from 1 unit of whole blood. Used to enhance blood clotting ability when the count is low—less commonly used

Platelets

200

Unused blood should be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature between

1° and 6°F (33.8−42.8°C)

201

What involves the use of the patient’s own blood that has been processed for reinfusion

Autotransfusion

202

What is blood collected in for use in auto-transfusion

Autologous blood retrieval system (Cell Saver®)