A&P II Quiz 3

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1

When stem cells called spermatogonia divide, one differentiates into a primary spermatocyte, What happens to the second daughter cell?

It remains in the outer layer of the seminiferous tubule

2

Which of the following occurs during the process of spermiogenesis

Spermatids differentiate into mature sperm

3

Which of the following is not a function of sustencular cells?

Produce androgens, particularly testosterone

4

Colostrum contains ____ than breast milk.

More proteins and less fat

5

At puberty, what change occurs in the cardiovascular system of males?

Stimulation of erythropoiesis

6

If you are homozygous for a trait (such as curly hair), what does that mean for your phenotype?

You will express that trait

7

What is the composition of the filtrate in the capsular space?

Similar to plasma, only no proteins

8

Why is the presence of microvilli important to the epithelial tissue of the PCT?

Because reabsorption is occurring

9

How is you genotype distinguished from your phenotype?

Genetic makeup/anatomical and physiological characteristics of an individual

10

Which of the following traits is inherited in a codominant fashion? What does codominant mean?

Type AB blood type/Both dominant and recessive traits are equally expressed

11

If one parent is homozygous dominant for a trait (ZZ)and the other parent is homozygous recessive for the same trait (zz), what is the outcome in their offspring?

A and B are correct

12

If a mother is a carrier for colorblindness (XCXc) and a father is colorblind (XcY), what is the chance for colorblindness in their female progeny?

1/2 will be colorblind, XcXc

13

Why are children not identical copies of their parents?

All of the above are factors

14

How is the generation of four sperm possible from one spermatogonium

Meiosis I yields two haploid secondary spermatocytes, which go through meiosis II and become four haploid spermatids

15

If secretions from the prostate gland are absent from semen, how does the composition of semen change?

Its pH is higher and its volume decreases by about 30%

16

What nephron structures are involved in filtration?

Glomerular capillaries, lamina densa, and filtration slits of the podocytes

17

What is the role of capsular hydrostatic pressure (CsHP)?

Pushes water and solutes out of filtrate into plasma

18

What direct affect does sympathetic activation have on GFR?

Produces powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole

19

Where is concentration of urine the greatest? Why?

In the medulla/concentrating mechanism relies on osmosis

20

If a male has his prepuce surgically removed, what has happened to him?

He has been circumcised

21

What will happen to the penis if the arteries withing the penis dilate?

The male attains an erection

22

What is a direct effect of low FSH secretion in males?

The rate of sperm production decreases

23

All of the following except ____ are effects of angiotensin II

Inhibition of ADH release

24

How long does it take for a sperm to reach ovum? Why?

30 minutes to 2 hours/contraction of uterine musculature and ciliary action assist sperm travel

25

What important role do hyaluronidase and acrosin play in fertilization?

Penetration of the zona pellucida

26

What process of chemical interplay among developing cells prompts the differentiation of other embryonic cells?

Induction

27

Which of the three embryonic germ layers consists of cells that do not migrate to the interior of the inner cell mass?

Ectoderm

28

Which body system develops form all three embryonic germ layers?

Endocrine system

29

What is the developmental fate of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst?

It becomes an embryo

30

Improper development of which of the extraembryonic membranes affects the cardiovascular system?

Yolk sac

31

How would the absence of juxtamedullary nephrons affect the volume of urine and its osmotic concentration?

Increase volume; decrease osmotic concentration

32

Which structures move with the testes during their descent from the abdomen?

Ductus deferens, testicular artery, lymph vessels, and nerves

33

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ____.

Nephron loop

34

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

a vasa recta

35

An increase in the permeability of the cell of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ___.

increase in the production of ADH

36

The urinary bladder is composed of ____ epithelium.

transitional

37

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ___.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

38

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

39

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is _____.

osmosis

40

Most electrolyte reabsorption by renal tubules is ___.

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

41

The macula densa cells respond to ___.

changes in solute content of the filtrate

42

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

creatinine

43

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ___.

plasma protein

44

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

aldosterone

45

Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ___.

reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

46

Respiratory acidosis can occur when ___.

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

47

Total body water is not a function of which of the following?

amount of water ingested

48

Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?

anabolism of lipids

49

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?

aldosterone

50

The fluid link between the external and internal environment is ___.

plasma

51

Newborn infants have relatively higher ____ content in their ECF than do adults.

sodium

52

Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?

GnRH

53

The "master switch" for male reproductive development is ____.

the SRY gene

54

The primary function of the uterus is to ____.

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

55

Why is the blood-testis barrier important?

because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system

56

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the _____.

fallopian tubes

57

If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

twice the dipliod number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development would not occur

58

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ____.

they have the same number of chromosomes

59

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ___.

meiosis

60

Fertilization generally occurs in the ___.

Fallopian tubes

61

Spermiogenesis involves the ____.

formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytopasm

62

Which of the following female structures is homologous to the male scrotum?

labia majora

63

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ___.

identical

64

How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?

They move away from the pelvic cavity

65

Effects of estrogen include ____.

growth of the breasts at puberty

66

Secretion of progesterone stimulates ____.

preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

67

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?

The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail

68

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ____.

interstitial endocrine cells

69

The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ___.

sustentocytes

70

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?

the mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system

71

Normally menstruation occurs when ___.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

72

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ___.

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produces and in spermatogenesis four mature spermare produced from one parent cell

73

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an uequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?

The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies

74

Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

The endometrium enters its secretory phase

75

Which of the following is not a germ layer?

epiderm

76

The formation of endodermal and ectodermal germ layers occurs at ____.

gastrulation

77

Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?

human chorionic gonadotropin

78

Which of the following events does not occur during the first 8 weeks of development?

myelination of the spinal cord

79

Which of the following is not a correct matching of a fetal structure with what it becomes at birth?

ductus arteriosus - ligamentum teres

80

Which body system of a pregnant woman undergoes the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?

cardiovascular system

81

A premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall is called ____.

abrupto placenta

82

The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is ____.

zygot, morula, blastocyst

83

Those characteristics that can be determined on superficial inspection of an individual are known as ___.

phenotypic

84

Is genetic diversity due entirely to inherited genes on the sex chromosomes?

No, because genetic diversity has nothing to do with the sex chromosomes but is due to crossing-over of chromosomes, independent assortment of chromosomes, and segregation of chromosomes

85

A female infant is born with several hundred oocytes, each one genetically unique. This is due to ____.

independent assortment and random crossover

86

In meiosis the spermatozoa that are produced are genetically unlike each other and unlike the cell that produces them. This is one reason for the great variation among humans. What cause this effect?

crossing-over and independent assortment only

87

The reason recessive genetic disorders are more frequent than disorders inherited as dominant it that ____.

carriers are not eliminated by the disease before passing the defective alleles on to their offspring

88

The gene responsible for the condition known as sickle-cell anemia demonstrates _____.

incomplete dominance

89

An example of multiple-allele inheritance is ____.

the ABO blood group

90

Which of the following is true concerning environmental influence on genetic expression?

drugs and nutrition can alter normal gene expression

91

Sex chromosomes of a normal male are ____.

XY

92

A woman has blond hair and brown eyes. This statement is best described as indicating ____.

phenotype

93

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ____.

inhibits the release of ADH

94

The function of angiotensin II is to ____.

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure