Radiographic Pathology Chapter 2

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The first modality capable of producing images without the use of ionizing radiation was:

a. ultrasound

b. magnetic resonance imaging

c. nuclear medicine

d. computerized tomography

a. ultrasound


Which of the following was the first modality to provide sectional anatomy images with increase visibility of soft-tissue structures?

a. conventional tomography

b. computed tomography

c. positron emission tomography

d. magnetic resonance imaging

b. computed tomography


With the integration of strong magnets and radio frequencies, high resolution soft-tissue imaging in multiple planes became available with:

a. nuclear medicine

b. single-photon emission computed tomography

c. computed tomography

d. magnetic resonance imaging

d. magnetic resonance imaging


Single-photon emission computed tomography took nuclear medicine imaging concepts and added the use of:

a. new pharmaceuticals

b. new pulsing sequences

c. gamma camera movement

d. stronger frequency transducers

c. gamma camera movement


Which of the following uses gamma-emitting radionuclides to produce images?

a. x-ray images

b. nuclear medicine images

c. PET images

d. sonography images

b. nuclear medicine images


Molecular imaging advancements using a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical is:


b. CAT

c. MRI

d. PET

d. PET


The superimposition of images from two different digital modalities produces images:

a. of anatomic and physiologic perpectives

b. using software for image integration

c. from hybrid equipment, such at PET-CT

d. all of the above

d. all of the above


The complexity of technology requires the radiographer to:

a. have a more specific skill set

b. have an extensive knowledge of anatomy

c. have computer networking classes

d. A and B

d. A and B


Which of the following specialized imaging techniques provides cross-sectional images at a low cost, is readily available, and has the ability to differentiate cystic, solid, and complex tissue?

a. sonography

b. CT

c. MRI

d. PET

a. sonography


In ultrasound the high frequency sound waves are produced by:

a. sound waves emanating from the body

b. electrical stimulation of a specialized crystal

c. magnets and pulse radiofrequencies

d. radiopharmaceuticals

b. electrical stimulation of a specialized crystal


Reflections in ultrasound produced by tissue interaction are called:

a. isoechoic

b. echoes

c. pulses

d. frequencies

b. echoes


Fluid-filled structures transmitting sound waves easily and appearing as a dark region on the image are _____ tissue.

a. hyperechoic

b. hypoechoic

c. anechoic

d. isoechoic

c. anechoic


The major advantage of ultrasound is:

a. no adverse effects on human tissue

b. ability to image anatomy in cross-section

c. ionizing radiation is used to produce an image

d. only low energy gamma radiation is used to produce an image

a. no adverse effects on human tissue


To produce quantitative data in ultrasound, the equipment must:

a. integrate real-time imaging with sono CT

b. include harmonic technology

c. fuse conventional real-time with Doppler imaging

d. have multifrequency transucer

c. fuse conventional real-time with doppler imaging


To demonstrate stenosis, blood clots, plaques, and emboli requires:

a. a multifrequecy transducer

b. a color-flow duplex system

c. sono CT real-time compound imaging

d. harmonic imaging

c. sono CT real-time compound imaging


Using a narrow x-ray beam and scanning from multiple angles, the amount of radiation absorbed in tissue is represented by:

a. a relative line attenuation coefficient

b. data for computer reconstruction

c. a gray scale on the computer monitor

d. all of the above

d. all of the above


The attenuation of a specific tissue relative to water is the:

a. CT number

b. echo coefficient

c. positron absorption

d. pulse sequence

a. CT number


Window width in CT controls:

a. density

b. gray scale

c. midrage densities

d. resolution

a. density


The midpoint or center of the number of densities being viewed in a selected window on CT is the:

a. window width

b. pulse width

c. window level

d. x-ray level

c. window level


High-resolution CT requires the slice sections to be:

a. 1.5 to 2.0 mm

b. 2 to 5 mm

c. 5 to 10 mm

d. 1 to 2 cm

a. 1.5 to 2.0 mm