Physical Environments and Safety Standards - Chapter 5 (Nicola)

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1

Physical design of surgery department

Easily accessible to ICU, ED, L&D
Must be in an area that can be limited to traffic and public access

2

Basic design types of surgery include:

Race Track Plan
Hotel Plan
Specialty Grouping Plan

3

The “race track” plan

Series of OR's around a clean core, the front entrance to each OR is from the outer corridor, and supplies are retrieved through a rear entrance to the room leading to the central-core storage and work areas.

4

The “hotel plan”

ORs are situated along a central corridor, with separate clean core and soiled work areas. All traffic enters and exits the surgery department through a single entrance or a primary entrance and holding area entrance situated along the same corridor.

5

The “specialty grouping” plan

ORs are grouped by specialty (e.g., neurosurgery, general surgery), each with its own closely associated clean storage areas and, in some cases, each with its own soiled instrument work area.

6

Room that typically contains sinks for gross decontamination, an ultrasonic washer, and a washer-sterilizer to decontaminate instruments and equipment

decontamination room

7

The standard size of an OR has traditionally been at least

400–600 ft2

8

OR that is specifically designed for trauma patients may be at least

800 ft2

9

The majority of ORs contain both

110-volt and 220-volt outlets

10

What are designated in red and are connected to the hospital’s backup generator system in case of power outage

Emergency outlets

11

Each OR must have at least .....suction outlets

Two
One for the surgical team and one for anesthesia

12

What color is the outlet for compressed air

yellow

13

What color is the outlet for oxygen

green

14

What color is the outlet for nitrous oxide

blue

15

Surgical lights should be freely adjustable in both the

horizontal and vertical planes

16

What are routinely displayed on the view boxes

Radiographs, isotope, and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

17

Points in the operating table that indicate where a section can be moved up or down

Breakpoints at the knee, waist, and head

18

The operating table is maneuvered by an electrical control system by either the

circulator or anesthesia provider

19

Many procedures are .... critical

time

20

Surgical equipment ...... are ceiling-mounted, articulating arms that contain a variety of surgical equipment, such as electrical, gas, and communication devices.

Booms

21

OR should be equipped with a standard set of furniture

Operating table
back table
one or more Mayo stands
ring stands
and a kick bucket

22

Large movable table that is covered with a sterile drape for placement of sterile instruments, supplies, and equipment for surgical procedures

Back table

23

Small portable stand with a tray on top that is covered with a sterile drape and on which the instruments, equipment, and supplies that are most frequently used for the surgical procedure are placed; it is most often positioned over the patient’s legs

Mayo stands

24

A stand that is designed with one or two circular bands at the top to hold sterile basins

Ring stands

25

The walls of the OR should have the following characteristics

Nonglare
Fireproof
Nonporous
Waterproof
Nonreflective
Pleasant in color
Easy to clean with antimicrobial solution

26

In some cases, such as cardiac cases, these basins may be used to hold a sterile ice/slush solution for hypothermia in the absence of a slush machine.

Ring stand basins

27

The unidirectional positive-pressure flow of air that captures microbes to be filtered

laminar air flow

28

The ventilation system in the OR should

provide a supply of clean air; remove airborne contamination that is produced within the room; remove waste anesthetic gases, toxic fumes, and vapors; and provide a comfortable working environment for surgical personnel.

29

Transported or spread by air; the surgical technologist is primarily concerned with airborne bacteria

airborne bacteria

30

A 1940's studied lead to the creation of

positive-pressure air supply in the OR

31

What airflow she be created in the OR

positive laminar air flow, a unidirectional positive-pressure flow of air that captures microbes to be filtered. This means that the air pressure in the OR is kept by ventilation at a higher level than that of the surrounding corridors

32

How many air changes should there be in the OR

A minimum of 15 per hour with a recommended range of 20 to 25 per hour.

33

Filter that is capable of removing bacteria as small as 0.5–5 mm; utilized in the operating room to aid in preventing the patient from acquiring a postoperative wound infection

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

34

CDC guidelines recommend that at least .... of the air change per hour be from fresh outside air.

20%

35

The temperature in the OR is kept between

68° and 73°F.

36

The recommended range for relative humidity is

20% to 60%

37

In which room is this statement reffering to - Positive air pressure is defeated in this case because adjacent rooms also are under this same system.

Substerile area

38

This is the area the patient is directed and admitted to on arrival at the hospital.

Preoperative or “Same-Day” Check-in Unit

39

A designated room where patients wait within the surgery department before entering the OR

Preoperative holding area

40

What happens in a pre-op room

IV's can be inserted
Anesthesia preoperative interview, regional blocks such as epidural anesthesia may be administered For pediatric cases, this room may have a rocking chair for the parent

41

Area where immediate postoperative care of the patient takes place before transfer to the hospital room or ICU

postanesthesia care unit (PACU)

42

What is performed in the PACU when the patient has regained consciousness and can breathe unassisted.

extu-bation - same day surgery

43

PACU cubicle has the following equipment for patient care:

Pulse oximeter
Blood pressure cuff
Wall suction and tubing
Wall oxygen and tubing
Electrocardiographic (ECG) monitor

44

The individual responsible for running and maintaining the cardiopulmonary bypass machine during open heart procedures

perfusionists

45

What is a study of moving body structures—similar to an X-ray "movie."

Fluoroscopy

46

Other departments have little awareness of aseptic principles and techniques, and it is therefore the duty of the .........to supervise personnel movement around the sterile field

surgical technologist

47

Process by which energy either directly or indirectly induces ionization of radiation-absorbing material or tissues; X-rays

ionizing radiation

48

It important for surgical technologists to wear

lead shields such as leaded aprons and/or thyroid shields to prevent exposure to ionizing radiation

49

The department responsible for testing and processing specimens, tissues, and body fluids to obtain a diagnosis

pathology department

50

Permanent specimens are usually sent to the pathology laboratory in

formalin solutions and frozen sections are sent dry.

51

Guidelines established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reduce the risk of disease transmission from blood and body fluids

Standard Precautions

52

Noise, ionizing radiation, electricity, injury to the body, fire, explosion, and injuries from sharps

Physical hazards

53

Laser and electrosurgical plume pathogens found in body fluids, latex sensitivity

Biological hazards

54

Disinfecting agents, waste anesthetic gases, and vapors and fumes from chemical agents

Chemical hazards

55

Organization whose mission is to reduce the frequency of fires through the establishment of fire prevention standards, research, and public fire safety education.

National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA)

56

Organization whose responsibilities are similar to OSHA but tends to be more research oriented in establishing permissible exposure limits (PELs) for chemical vapors and gases. ****It is an arm of the CDC that is under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

57

Organization who promote and facilitate voluntary consensus standards in technical fields. An example is the laser safety standard that is intended for use by all health care facilities that use lasers in the treatment of patients

American National Standards Institute ANSI

58

Similar to ANSI, it is also an organization of industry experts who develop and provide voluntary consensus standards for medical equipment by testing the equipment.

American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM

59

Organization that establishes standards in the health care field, including sterilization, electrical safety, levels of device safety, and use of medical devices.

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation AAMI

60

What emits a blue-white beam that still adequately illuminates the surgical site yet produces little glare and approximates the color intensities of normal sunlight

Surgical lights

61

Back injury and/or pain is usually the result of

Lifting with the back bowed out
Bending and reaching with the back bowed out
Jerking or twisting at the hips
Obesity
Loss of strength and flexibility
Poor nutrition

62

Proper body mechanics helps prevent injury and discomfort

Stand with legs approximately shoulder width apart
Avoid weight bearing on one foot 3.The surgical Stand next to the OR table in an erect manner with arms relaxed from the shoulder down
Sit in an erect fashion with the spinal column straight.
Do not lean forward from the shoulders, but from the hips.
Push equipment, not pull

63

The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recommends

a 25-pound weight limit on instrument trays and sets

64

Nitrous oxide, which itself is nonflammable, supports combustion in the presence of

oxygen

65

Three components of fire:

fuel, source of ignition, and oxygen

66

Sources of ignition

electrosurgery, electrocautery, lasers, fiber-optic light sources, defibrillators, sparks from dental or orthopedic burs, or sparks from metal hitting metal (e.g., two metal retractors coming into contact)

67

Fuel that can start a fire

flammable chemical gas, vapor, or liquid such as ethyl alcohol and skin prep solutions containing isopropyl alcohol; surgical drapes; disposable surgical supplies

68

laser is an acronym for

“light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation.”

69

The process in which light energy is produced and the device that generates the laser energy or beam

Laser

70

Fire prevention is critical during laser surgery. The surgical team must be aware of the precautions to follow to prevent a fire, and supplies needed

Sterile water - keep sponges wet
portable fire extinguishers
laser-retardant drapes - or place wet towels on drapes

71

The anesthesia provider must use a ....... . During oral or laryngeal surgery, when a laser is in use

nonexplosive anesthetic agent

72

Patient precautions for laser use surgery

The patient’s hair should be covered with wet sponges or towels to prevent ignition if close to the laser site. The patient should be given preoperative instructions not to use hair spray that can easily ignite

73

Nd:YAG laser is absorbed by and damages the retina, causing.

blindness

74

the CO2 laser is absorbed by the corneal and can cause

corneal burns

75

Mechanical device that produces an electric current that is converted into thermal energy (heat) for the purpose of cutting or coagulating tissue

electrosurgical unit (Bovie)
uses a grounding pad

76

Used in ENT cases, must not be pointed at drapes as it can smolder and set on fire

Fiberoptic Beam

77

Pressurized water; suitable for fires involving solid materials, e.g., wood, paper, or textiles

Class A

78

Carbon dioxide or dry chemical for fires involving flammable liquids, oils, and gas

Class B

79

Halon for electrical or laser fires

Class C

80

The PASS mnemonic is used when operating a fire extinguisher

Pull
Aim
Squeeze
Sweep

81

The three main concerns if a fire should occur in the OR are to

Protect the patient
Contain the fire if possible
Move the anesthesia equipment as far away as possible from fire source

82

RACE

Remove/Rescue
Alert/sound
Contain the fire
Extinguish/evacuate

83

Who has developed safety standards for electrical equipment used in the OR

AAMI and The Joint Commission

84

What prevents the passage of the electrical current through the patient by directing the current to the ground,

Grounding

85

If the patient return electrode is not firmly affixed, the patient could suffer

first-, second-, or third-degree electrical burns

86

What are two processes by which static charge buildup can occur

Friction between two surfaces; the second is by proximity to an electrostatic field.

87

The three most important factors to remember concerning the safety of the surgical technologist and ionizing radiation are

Time, shielding, distance

88

If fluoroscopy will be used throughout the surgical procedure what should the ST wear

The lead apron is worn under the sterile gown and must be donned prior to scrubbing.

89

Surgical technologists who are a part of the sterile team and cannot leave the room should stand

6 ft or more from the patient, avoiding the direct beam of ionizing radiation. Stand behind the x-ray machine if possible, behind a portable lead screen, or behind someone wearing a lead shield.

90

Standard Precautions were defined by the

CDC in 1996

91

Standard Precautions apply to

blood and all body fluids, secretions, and excretions
***except sweat***

92

Two basic microbiological concepts govern the transmission of disease:

A sufficient number of microorganisms must be present in order to cause infection.
The microorganisms must have a path for entry into the host.

93

Prevention of a disease or condition

prophylaxis

94

HIV PEP The patient is evaluated for HIV infection, viral load, and risk factors for infection

PEP should not be delayed while information is gathered. It is better to start PEP and stop it later than not to have started it within the time window recommended.

95

What has been shown to prevent HIV transmission in humans (as of this writing).

zidovudine (ZDV)

96

PEP follow-up counseling and postexposure testing and evaluation

should be performed at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postexposure.

97

Studies have not been conclusive but have proved that the laser plume contains

water, carbonized particles, and intact strands of DNA

98

When the tip is held within 1 cm of the impact site,

approximately 98% of the plume is removed. If this is moved to 2cm then this is cut in half

99

Two types of latex allergic responses have been identified: .

Type I and Type IV

100

Which is the least serious latex allergy

Type IV is the less serious, more localized reaction characterized by skin irritation and discomfort.

101

Type I latex allergy

is immu-noglobulin E (IgE) mediated and is the most serious reaction, possibly leading to respiratory arrest

102

Chronic exposure to anesthesia gases could pose health hazards such as .

cancer, hepatic and renal complications, nerve and brain damage, and spontaneous abortion

103

Chemical compound composed of a mixture of liquid and powder used for cementing prostheses during total joint arthroplasties; also referred to as bone cement

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

104

PPMA The vapors released from the mixture

are noxious and irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and can damage soft contact lenses, thus damaging the eyes

105

It is known to be a mutagen, a carcinogen, and toxic to the liver. Both OSHA and NIOSH have established standards for the permissible exposure limits (PEL) in the surgery department

Formalin

106

Exposure to the gas can cause nausea, vomiting, and vertigo
mutagenic and carcinogenic

Ethylene Oxide