Genetics Ch4 Flashcards
A mutation in a gene often results in a reduction of the product of
that gene. The term for this type of mutation is ________.
B) incomplete dominance
C) gain of function
D) multiple allelism
E) loss of function or null (in the case of complete loss
With incomplete dominance, a likely ratio resulting from a monohybrid
cross would be ________.
The presence of more than two alternative forms of a given gene would
be called ________.
A) multiple alleles
B) alternation of generations
D) incomplete dominance
A condition in which one gene pair masks the expression of a
nonallelic gene pair is called ________.
E) additive alleles
Typical ratios resulting from epistatic interactions in dihybrid
crosses would be ________.
A) 9:3:3:1, 1:2:1
B) 1:1:1:1, 1:4:6:4:1
C) 9:3:4, 9:7
D) 1:2:2:4:1:2:1:2:1, 1:2:1
E) 3:1, 1:1
With which of the following would hemizygosity most likely be
B) incomplete dominance
C) trihybrid crosses
D) X-linked inheritance
E) sex-limited inheritance
Because of the mechanism of sex determination, males of many species
can be neither homozygous nor heterozygous. Such males are said to be
E) None of the answers listed is correct
Assume that a mutation occurs in the gene responsible for the production of hexosaminidase A, such that only about 50% of the enzyme activity is found in the heterozygote compared with a homozygous normal individual. If heterozygotes are phenotypically normal, we would say that the mutant allele is recessive to its normal allele
A 9:7 ratio indicates incomplete dominance.
With both incomplete dominance and codominance, one expects heterozygous and homozygous classes to be phenotypically identical.
With multiple alleles, there can be more than two genetic alternatives for a given locus.
The ABO blood group locus in humans provides an example of epistasis.
A typical epistatic ratio is 9:3:4.
Alleles that are masked by an epistatic locus are said to be hypostatic to the genes at that locus
Hemizygosity is the term used to describe the state of a gene that has no allele on the opposing chromosome
Sex-limited inheritance is the same as sex-linked inheritance.
Pattern baldness and hen/cock feathering in fowl are examples of X-linked inheritance.
One result of X-linkage is a crisscross pattern of inheritance in which sons express recessive genes of their fathers and daughters express recessive genes of their mothers.
A conditional mutant is one whose expression is influenced by some environmental condition
Penetrance specifically refers to the expression of lethal genes in heterozygotes.
Expressivity is the term used to describe the balanced genetic output from a hemizygous condition
Genomic imprinting occurs when one allele converts another
Genomic anticipation refers to observations that a genetic disorder occurs at an earlier age in successive generations, whereas genetic imprinting occurs when gene expression varies depending on parental origin
The term expressivity defines the percentage of individuals who show at least some degree of expression of a mutant genotype