STUDY GUIDE chapter 1,2,3 Flashcards


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1

Phase of metabolism that provides energy by BREAKING DOWN COMPLEX MOLECULES into SIMPLE MOLECULES. (e.g.) PROTEINS → AMINO ACIDS

CATABOLISM

2

ISOTOPES

  • Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. Isotopes are different forms of a single element.
  • EXAMPLES... Carbon 12 and Carbon 14 are both isotopes of carbon, one with 6 neutrons and one with 8 neutrons (both with 6 protons).
3

Heterogeneous, will settle

Suspensions

4

What type of homeostatic feedback reflex is the withdrawal reflex?

negative

5

An atom with ________ electrons could be an anion when ionically bonded.

ANSWER: 9

6

in certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored

in the smooth ER

7

An example of a coenzyme is

riboflavin (vitamin B2)

8

What is a DIPOLE?

POLAR MOLECULE

9

Two good examples of a colloid would be Jell-O® or

cytosol

10

Phase of metabolism that uses the energy from CATABOLISM to build up the BODY'S STRUCTURAL and FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS. It is also called BIOSYNTHESIS. (e.g.) AMINO ACIDS → PROTEINS.

ANABOLISM

11

The coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix is referred to as the ________.

secondary structure

12
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Which of the following are subdivisions of anatomy?

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regional, systemic, and surface

13

A solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being ________.

acidic

14

In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves

to hold the molecular backbone together

15

The numbers listed represent the first, second, and third energy levels, respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom?

2, 8, 1

16

The ATP molecule is not used in?

chemical work
mechanical work
ANSWER: transport
pigments

17

Which of the following is a neutralization reaction?

HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O

18

What is the pathway between the receptor and the control center in the reflex pathway called?

afferent pathway

19
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In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in

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the smooth ER

20
  1. Abundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress.
  2. type of anchoring junction.
  3. Communicating junction.
  4. Present in electrically excitable tissues.
  1. Desmosomes
  2. Desmosomes
  3. Gap junctions
  4. Gap junctions
21

If an atom were to have two protons, then it would

be very stable

22

Which body system would be most affected by a lower than normal atmospheric pressure?

respiratory system

23

Most fibrous proteins in the body contain all of these except:

keratin
elastin
eledin
collagen

24
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Can lungs carry out excretory functions? Explain your answer.

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Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete.

25
  • Heat shock proteins (hsp) are a type of protein called
  • Stress proteins are a type of protein called
  • chaperonins
26

HYDROGEN

Which bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific three-dimensional shape?

27

In liquid XYZ, you notice that light is scattered as it passes through. There is no precipitant in
the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days. This liquid must be a

Heterogeneous, will not settle

colloid

28
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  1. Plays a role in the synthesis of steroid-based hormones and proteins.
  2. The actual site of protein synthesis
  3. Hollow cytoskeletal elements that act as organizers for the cytoskeleton.
  4. Houses DNA and RNA.
  5. Dense spherical bodies in the nucleus that are the synthesis site for ribosomal RNA.
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  1. Endoplasmic reticulum
  2. Ribosomes
  3. Microtubules
  4. Nucleus
  5. Nucleoli
29
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Which of the following is not considered a factor in influencing a reaction rate?

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TIME

30

In redox reactions ________.

both decomposition and electron exchange occur

31

What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions called?

FRONTAL

32

Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in living
systems.

glucose to CO2 & H2O

33

Select the statement about mixtures that is correct.

A) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.

B) Solutions contain particles that settle out in time.

C) Suspensions can change reversibly from liquid to solid.

D) Suspensions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more components.

Answer: A

34
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What broad term covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells?

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metabolism

35

Fibrous proteins

are very stable and insoluble in water

36

Which of the following is true regarding the concentration of solutions?

A) Percent solutions are parts per 1000 parts.

B) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.

C) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic number of the solute.

D) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic weight of the solvent.

Answer: B

37
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  1. What does gross anatomy study?
  2. In which body cavities are the lungs located?
  3. The pH of body fluids must remain fairly constant for the body to maintain homeostasis
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  1. Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.
  2. pleural, ventral, and thoracic
  3. TRUE
38
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  1. What is the goal of all of the negative feedback mechanisms of the body?
  2. Which of the following describes a parasagittal plane?
  3. What is a vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right, called?
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  1. The goal is to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
  2. sagittal
  3. any sagittal plane except in the midline
39
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  1. What is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment termed?
  2. The body cavities that protect the nervous system are located in the ____ cavity.
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  1. homeostasis
  2. dorsal
40
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  1. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate.
  2. Chromosomes align on the spindle equator.
  3. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell
  4. Chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin.
  5. Chromosomal centromeres split and chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell.
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  1. Late prophase
  2. Metaphase
  3. Early prophase
  4. Telophase
  5. Anaphase
41

The single most abundant protein in the body is ________.

COLLAGEN

42
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  1. Similar cells that have a common function are called ________. Answer:
  2. Which of the following organs or structures would be found in the left iliac region?
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  1. tissues
  2. Intestines
43
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THE FOLLOWING DESCRIBE ENZYMES?

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  • some enzymes are protein plus a cofactor. Each enzyme is chemically specific.Some enzymes are purely protein
  • They are proteins.
  • They have specific binding sites for specific substrates.
  • They lower the activation barrier for a specific reaction.
  • The names end in "ase."
  • They can be denatured.
  • They can be used again and again.
44

The parietal pleura would represent a serous membrane

LINING THE THORACIC CAVITY

45

Smallest particle of an element that retains its properties.

ATOM

46

If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

The cells will lose water and shrink.

47

What moves cell organelles from one location to another inside a cell?

Motor proteins

48

The basic structural material of the body consists of

PROTEINS

49
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Help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells.

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Tight junctions

50

An amino acid may act as a proton acceptor or donor.

Amino acids have two components--a base group (proton acceptor) and an organic acid part (a proton donor). Some have additional base or acid groups on the ends of their R groups as well.

51

A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis.

TRUE

52

In general, the lipids that we refer to as oils have ________.

a high degree of unsaturated bonds

53

Many plasma proteins may function as _________.

BUFFERS

54

Hydrogen bonds are too weak to bind atoms together to form molecules but are important intramolecular bonds

TRUE

55

Which one of the following systems responds fastest to environmental stimuli?

NERVOUS

56
  1. Act as "interpreter" molecules that recognize specific amino acids and nucleotide base sequences.
  2. Produced in the nucleus, this molecule specifies the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be made.

Transfer RNA

Messenger RNA

57
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  • Ribosomal RNA
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  • Attaches the correct amino acid to its transfer RNA
  • Forms part of the protein synthesis site in the cytoplasm.
58

Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?

MICROVILLI

59

May be attached to the ER or scattered in the cytoplasm

Synthetase enzymes

60
  1. In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves
  2. The genetic information is coded in DNA by the ________.
  3. The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is
  4. The RNA that has an anticodon and attaches to a specific amino acid is ________ RNA
  1. to hold the molecular backbone together
  2. sequence of the nucleotides
  3. tRNA
  4. transfer
61
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  • ATP
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  • Provides the energy needed for synthesis reactions.
  • The ________ molecule directly provides energy for cellular work. Answer:
62

Anything that occupies space and has mass.

MATTER

63

Although a man who weighs 175 pounds on Earth would be lighter on the moon and heavier on Jupiter, his ________ would not be different.

MASS

64

Which of the following is not true of proteins?

They appear to be the molecular carriers of coded hereditary information.

65

Coenzymes are ________.

organic molecules derived from vitamins

66
  1. BLOOD
  2. A red blood cell placed in pure water would
  1. MIXTURE
  2. swell and burst
67

What type of chemical bond can form between an element with 11 protons and an element with 17 protons?

IONIC

68

Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________.

removal of a water molecule between each two units

69
  1. Neutral subatomic particle
  2. What happens when globular proteins are denatured?
  1. Neutron
  2. The active sites are destroyed.
70

Is a function of, and varies with, gravity.

WEIGHT

71

Dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide).

COMPOUND

72

Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?

a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell

73

Legs moving the pedals of a bicycle.

MECHANICAL

74

When the bonds of ATP are broken, energy is released to do cellular work.

Chemical energy

75
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Can be measured only by its effects on matter

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ENERGY

76

The lower the pH, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration.

TRUE

77

Are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action.

Peroxisomes

78

Are hollow tubes made of spherical protein subunits called tubulins. Answer:

Microtubules

79

Carbon

element

80

Which of the following is not a role of molecular chaperonins?

act as a platform for assembling primary protein structure

81

Represented by the flow of charged particles along a conductor, or the flow of ions across a membrane.

Electrical energy

82

Which of the following does NOT describe enzymes?

Enzymes work by raising the energy of activation.

83
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What does the polar end of a phospholipid contain?

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phosphorus-containing group

84

Which metals have a toxic effect on the body?

heavy metals such as bismuth, Most often the definition of toxic metals includes at least cadmium, manganese, lead, mercury and the radioactive metals.

85

Removes and filters excess fluid from tissues.

Lymphatic

86
  1. If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would be the
  2. How many phosphates would AMP have attached to it?
  3. A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ________.
  1. CONTROL CENTER
  2. ONE
  3. the release of energy
87
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  1. A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific functions for the body is a(n
  2. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide.
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  1. ORGAN
  2. TRUE
88
  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of lysosomes?
  2. Mixtures are combinations of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds
  1. forming acid hydrolases which are necessary to help form cell membranes
  2. TRUE
89

Which feedback mechanism causes the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range? Answer:

POSTIVE FEEDBACK

90
  1. a polymer of glucose found in animals; stored form of glucose
  2. Starch is the stored carbohydrate in plants, while ______ is the stored carbohydrate in animals.
  3. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________.
  1. GLYCOGEN
  2. glycogen
  3. GLYCOGEN
91
  1. Ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus functionally act in sequence to synthesize and modify proteins for secretory use (export) only, never for use by the cell. This statement is ________.
  2. What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?
  1. false; integral cell membrane proteins are also synthesized this way
  2. to maintain homeostasis
92
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  • contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
  • Other than the nucleus, which organelle has its own DNA?
  • Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in the ________. Answer:
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  • Mitochondria
93
  1. Buffers resist abrupt and large changes in the pH of the body by releasing or binding ions
  2. Weak acids and bases make good _______.
  1. TRUE
  2. BUFFERS
94
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  1. Passive membrane transport processes include
  2. Which of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?
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  1. movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
  2. The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate.
95

The higher we go in the mountains, the greater the atmospheric pressure, resulting in an increase in available oxygen. Comment on this statement.

At high altitudes, the atmospheric pressure is less than at lower levels resulting in a decrease in oxygen levels. The lower oxygen levels may be inadequate to support cellular metabolism.

96

Which of the following is NOT a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

protein synthesis in conjunction with ribosomes

97

A holoenzyme is composed of an apoenzyme and a(n) ________. Answer:

cofactor

98
  1. is division of the nucleus
  2. The metabolic or growth phase of a cell life cycle is called ________.
  1. Mitosis
  2. interphase
99
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Why are the abdominopelvic cavity organs the most vulnerable to blunt deceleration in an automobile accident with seat belts?

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The walls of the abdominal cavity are formed only by trunk muscles and are not reinforced by bone. The pelvic organs receive a somewhat greater degree of protection from the bony pelvis.

100

What can happen when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over?

Homeostatic imbalances increase our risk for illness and produce the changes we associate with aging

101

Which of the following is not a factor that binds cells together?

glycolipids in the glycocalyx

102

Hydrogen bonds are more like a type of weak ________ than true bonds.

attraction

103
  1. Will not scatter light.
  2. _______ have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors. Answer:
  3. Number of protons in an atom
  1. Solutions
  2. Bases
  3. ATOMIC NUMBER
104

Current information suggests that omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of heart disease.

TRUE

105

Which of these is an inclusion, not an organelle?

cilia
lysosome
ANSEWER: melanin
microtubule

106

Combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom

Mass number of an element

107
  1. An atom with three electrons would have a valence of ________. Answer: one
  2. Smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties.
  3. First one or two letters of an element's name
  1. ONE
  2. Molecule
  3. ATOMIC SYMBOL
108

Electrically charged particle due to loss of an electron.

CATION

109
  1. Which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?
  1. receptor-mediated endocytosis
110
  1. If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is
  2. If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.
  3. Which of the following statements is correct regarding RNA
  1. UGCAA
  2. UCG
  3. Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.
111
  1. The atomic number is equal to the number of ________. Answer:
  2. Which cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum? Answer:
  1. protons (and electrons)
  2. pelvic
112
  1. In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?
  2. hoose the following statement that is not completely correct regarding serous membranes.
  1. telophase
  2. Visceral pericardium covers the outer surface of the heart, and parietal pericardium lines the internal walls of the heart.
113
  • Which of the following does not serve as a signal for cell division?
  • The numbers listed represent the number of electrons in the first, second, and third energy levels, respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom?
  • repressor genes
  • 2, 8, 1
114
  1. Riboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to
  1. changes in the environment
115
  1. SPECIALIZATION of the CELLS.
  2. Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens?
  1. DIFFERENTIATION
  2. A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.
116
  1. Which statement is the most correct regarding transcription/translation?
  2. FORMATION of new CELLS; or FORMATION of new INDIVIDUAL.
  1. The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
  2. REPRODUCTION
117
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Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as "second messengers"?

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Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.

118
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  1. The main component of the cytosol is
  2. Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?
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  1. water
  2. Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
119
  1. The functions of centrioles include ________.
  2. Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells?
  1. organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division
  2. sodium
120
  1. A gene can best be defined as
  2. In order for the DNA molecule to get "short and fat" to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called ________. Answer:
  1. a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain
  2. histones
121
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Crenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in ______.

Caveolae are closely associated with all of the following?

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  1. a hypertonic solution
  2. lipid rafts, receptors for hormones, enzymes involved in cell regulation.
122
  1. Some hormones enter cells via
  2. A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with
  3. Which of the following elements is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?
  1. receptor-mediated endocytosis
  2. the release of energy
  3. Na
123
  1. Hollow cylinders that connect plasma membranes composed of transmembrane protein are called
  2. The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a
  1. connexon
  2. centriole
124

Describe two important functions of the Golgi apparatus.

To modify, sort, and package proteins.

125
  1. Which type of cell junction acts as anchors and distributes tension through a cellular sheet and reduces the chance of tearing when it is subjected to great mechanical stress?
  1. desmosomes
126
  1. The process of discharging particles from inside a cell to the outside is called
  2. Salts are always
  3. Why is anatomical terminology necessary?
  1. exocytosis
  2. ionic compounds
  3. Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage, which prevents confusion when describing the location of body parts.
127
  1. A bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved.
  2. Briefly describe the glycocalyx and its functions.
  1. Ionic bond
  2. The glycocalyx is the sticky, carbohydrate-rich area on the cell surface. It helps bind cells together and provides a highly specific biological marker by which cells can recognize each other.
128

Explain the term genetic code. What does it code for? What are the letters of the code?

The genetic code is the information encoded in the nucleotide base sequence of DNA. A sequence of three bases, called a triplet, specifies an amino acid in a protein. The letters of the code are the four nucleotide bases of DNA designated as A, T, C, and G.

129
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  1. Why are free radicals so dangerous to cells, and how are they dealt with by the body?
  2. A charged particle is generally called an ion or electrolyte
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  1. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that cause havoc in any cellular environment by reacting with things they should not. Cells with peroxisomes have enzymes specific to reducing free radicals into less reactive chemicals.
  2. TRUE
130
  1. A bond in which electrons are shared equally.
  2. What processes maintain a steady state "resting" membrane potential?
  1. Nonpolar covalent bond
  2. Both diffusion and active transport mechanisms operate within the cell membrane to maintain a resting membrane potential
131
  1. Which of the following is NOT a role of cell adhesion molecules
  2. Why can we say that a cell without a nucleus will ultimately die?
  1. initiators of cell-to-cell signaling for muscle contraction
  2. Without a nucleus, a cell cannot make proteins, nor can it replace any enzymes or other cell structures (which are continuously recycled). Additionally, such a cell could not replicate.
132
  1. How are the products of free ribosomes different from membrane-bound ribosomes?
  2. The acidity of a solution reflects the free hydrogen ions in the solution
  1. Free ribosomes make soluble proteins that function in the cytosol. Membrane-bound ribosomes produce proteins that are to be used on the cell membrane or exported from the cell.
  2. TRUE
133

What is the common route of entry for flu viruses into a cell?

Flu viruses and diphtheria toxins use receptor-mediated endocytosis. The virus can attach to the receptors or to the substances the receptors accept to "hitch a ride" into the cell.

134

How are peroxisomes different from lysosomes?

Peroxisomes contain oxidases that use oxygen to detoxify harmful substances. They are very good at neutralizing free radicals. Peroxisomes directly bud from the ER. Lysosomes contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that will pretty much destroy anything they come in contact with. They are manufactured by the Golgi apparatus.

135

Briefly name the subphases of interphase and tell what they do.

G1 - growth phase. The cell is metabolically active and the centriole begins to divide at the end of this phase. S - DNA replicates itself. New histones are made and assembled into chromatin. G2 - Enzymes and proteins are synthesized and centriole replication is completed. This is the final phase of interphase.

136
  1. Which of the following is a role of cell adhesion molecules
  2. The fact that no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture is the chief difference between mixtures and compounds
  1. anchor cells to molecules in the extracellular space and to each other transmitters of intracellular signals that direct cell migration, proliferation, and specialization mechanical sensors
  2. TRUE
137
  1. Caveolae are closely associated with all of the following except
  2. What happens in redox reactions?
  3. A type of bond important in tying different parts of the same molecule together into a three-dimensional structure.
  1. enzymes involved in cell metabolism
  2. both decomposition and electron exchange occur
  3. Hydrogen bond
138
  1. Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
  2. Introns represent a genome scrap yard that provides DNA segments for genome evolution and a variety of
  3. Final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2. Lipid rafts, found in the cell
  4. Lipid rafts, found in the cell outer membrane surface, are concentrating platforms for certain receptor molecules or for protein molecules needed for cell signaling..
  1. TRUE
  2. TRUE
  3. TRUE
  4. TRUE
139
  1. Concentration differences cause ionic imbalances that polarize the cell membrane, and active transport processes.
  2. The speed of individual particle diffusion is influenced by temperature and particle size, not by concentration.
  3. Nitric oxide is known to be the first gas to act as a biological messenger.
  4. There is only one cell type in the human body that has a flagellum.
  1. TRUE
  2. TRUE
  3. TRUE
  4. TRUE
140
  1. Cholesterol helps to stabilize the cell membrane while decreasing the mobility of the phospholipids.
  2. Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.
  3. The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
  1. TRUE
  2. TRUE
  3. TRUE
141
  1. Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?
  2. What is a chain of more than 50 amino acids called?
  3. Choose the answer that best describes fibrous proteins.
  1. CH4
  2. protein
  3. are very stable and insoluble in water
142
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  1. What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix?
  2. A bond in which electrons are shared unequally
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  1. secondary structure
  2. Polar covalent bond
143
  1. Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the
  2. Which of the following does not describe uses for the ATP molecule?
  1. removal of a water molecule between each two units
  2. pigment structure
144
  1. Choose the answer that best describes HCO3-.
  2. It is the difference in the R group that makes each amino acid chemically unique
  1. a bicarbonate ion
  2. TRUE
145
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The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is called?.

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responsiveness or excitability

146
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What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol in neutral fats?

Neutral fats have a________ ratio of fatty acids to glycerol.

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3:1

147

is fat soluble, produced in the skin on exposure to UV radiation, and necessary for normal bone growth and function

VITAMIN D

148

The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen

149

Molecules such as methane that are made of atoms that share electrons have ________ bonds. Answer:

covalent

150
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Atom X has 17 protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell?

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7

151

Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?

high heat of vaporization

152

Which protein types are vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances?

molecular chaperones

153

If atom X has an atomic number of 74 it would have which of the following?

74 protons

154

The atomic weight is only an average of relative weights of an atom and its isotopes, and it may vary from the weight of a specific isotope

TRUE

155

What does the formula C6H12O6 mean

There are, 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms.

156

Explain the difference between potential and kinetic energy.

Potential energy is inactive stored energy that has potential to do work. Kinetic energy is energy in action.

157

How can phospholipids form a film when mixed in water?

Phospholipids have both polar and nonpolar ends. The polar end interacts with water, leaving the nonpolar end oriented in the opposite direction.

158

Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids.

DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.

159

Which of the following statements is false?

A)The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more acidic the solution.

B)The pH of blood is slightly basic.

C)When the hydrogen ion concentration decreases, the hydroxyl ion concentration also decreases.

D)When acids and bases are mixed, they react with each other to form water and a salt

160

Which of the following statements is false?

A)Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions, sometimes while undergoing reversible changes in shape.

B)Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully.

C)Chemical reactions progress at a faster rate when the reacting particles are present in higher numbers.

D)Chemical reactions proceed more quickly at higher temperatures.

161

Select the most correct statement.

A)The endocrine system is not a true structural organ system.

B)Organ systems operate independently of each other to maintain life.

C)The immune system is closely associated with the lymphatic system.

D)Organ systems can be composed of cells or tissues, but not both.

162

Which of the following are survival needs of the body?

nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen

163

One of the functional characteristics of life is excitability or responsiveness. This refers to

Sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them

164

What does the "principle of complementarity of structures and function" mean? Answer:

What a structure can do depends on its specific form, or "structure determines function."

165

______ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function of specific organs or organic systems. Answer:

Physiology

166

Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain?

MRI

167

_ _ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function. Answer:

Renal

168

What is the function of the serous membranes? Answer:

They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls.

169

Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body. Answer:

The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away from the midline.

170

Which of the following statements is the most correct regarding homeostatic imbalance?

It is considered the cause of most diseases.

171
  1. Provides support and levers for muscles to pull
  2. Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains
  3. The study of large body structures, visible to the naked eye, such as the heart is called ________ anatomy.
  4. Histology would be best defined as a study of
  1. Skeletal
  2. a relatively stable internal environment, within limits.
  3. gross
  4. tissues
172
  1. HEAD, NECK, THORAX, ABDOMEN, PELVIS.
  2. UPPER LIMBS, LOWER LIMBS.
  1. AXIAL PART:
  2. APPENDICULAR PART
173
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  1. The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except ________.
  2. Protects underlying organs from environmental damage and synthesizes vitamin D
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  1. palms turned posteriorly
  2. Integumentary
174
  1. Which of the following statements is true concerning feedback mechanisms?
  1. Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
175
  1. Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues
  2. Controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones.
  3. Produces antibodies that attach to foreign substances
  4. esponds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses
  1. Cardiovascular
  2. Endocrine
  3. Immune
  4. Nervous
176
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  1. is located near the back of the body. It is divided into TWO CAVITIES:
  2. Formed by the CRANIAL BONES; it houses the BRAIN.
  3. Formed by VERTEBRAE of the backbone, it contains SPINAL CORD, and ROOTS of SPINAL NERVES.
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  1. THE DORSAL (POSTERIOR) BODY CAVITY:
  2. CRANIAL CAVITY:
  3. VERTEBRAL (SPINAL) CAVITY:
177

a type of bond important in tying different parts of the same molecule together into a three-dimensional structure

hydrogen bond

178
  1. a bond in which electrons are NOT shared equally
  2. a bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved
  3. a bond in which electrons are equally shared
  1. polar covalent bond
  2. ionic bond
  3. nonpolar covalent bond
179

electrically charged particle from gain of an electron

anion

180
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  1. subatomic particle with no charge
  2. smallest particle of an element that retains is properties
  3. smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties
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  1. neutron
  2. atom
  3. molecule
181

electrically charged particle from loss of an electron

CATION

182
  1. phospholipids
  2. triglycerides
  1. major component of cell membranes
  2. used for energy storage and for insulation
183
  1. fatty acids with all single bonds between carbon atoms
  2. fatty acids with one double bond between carbon atoms
  3. fatty acids with more than one double bond between carbon atoms
  4. trans fats
  5. omega-3 fats
  1. saturated
  2. monounsaturated
  3. polyunsaturated
  4. ”bad” fats
  5. ”good” fats
184
  1. A + B → AB
  2. AB → A + B
  3. AB + C → AC + B
  4. A + B ←→ AB
  1. synthesis reaction
  2. decomposition
  3. exchange reaction
  4. reversible reaction
185
  1. the linear sequence of amino acids comprising a protein chain
  2. composed of alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets
  3. alpha-helical or beta-pleated regions folded upon each other
  4. two or more proteins aggregated together
  1. primary structure
  2. secondary structure
  3. tertiary structure
  4. quaternary structure
186
  1. legs moving the pedals of a bicycle
  2. energy released to do cellular work when the bonds of ATP are broken
  3. energy that travels in waves; part of the electromagnetic spectrum
  4. represented by the flow of charged particles along a conductor or the flow of ions across a membrane
  1. mechanical energy
  2. chemical energy
  3. radiant energy
  4. electrical energy
187
  1. The genetic code consists of the sequence of
    bases in ________ molecules
  2. The genetic code is transcribed to the sequence
    of bases in _____ molecules.

Protein Synthesis

  1. DNA
  2. mRNA

Protein Synthesis

188
  1. Molecule that carries instructions for protein
    synthesis to ribosomes.
  2. Molecule that carries amino acids to ribosome
    for addition to amino acid chain.
  3. Small molecules that join to form a protein
    during translation.
  1. mRMA
  2. tRNA
  3. Amino acids

Protein Synthesis

189
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1 ) Division of the cytoplasm.

2) Replication of chromosomes.

3) Chromosomes appear as threadlike bodies.

4) Chromatids move toward ends of spindle.

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  1. Telophase
  2. Interphase
  3. Prophase
  4. Anaphase
190
  1. New nuclei start to form.
  2. Occupies most of cell cycle
  3. Chromosomes line up at equator of spindle.
  4. Cell performs its normal functions.
  1. Telophase
  2. Interphase
  3. Metaphase
  4. Interphase
191
  1. Diffusion of water.
  2. Engulfment of liquid droplets.
  1. Osmosis
  2. Pinocytosis
192
  1. Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
  2. Results from random molecular movement.
  1. Diffusion
  2. Diffusion; Osmosis
193

The source of energy captured in ATP. ______.

Glucose

194

The building blocks of nucleic acids are

Nucleotides

195
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  1. The heart lies specifically in the _____ space.
  2. ORGANS FOUND IN THE THORACIC CAVITY
  3. Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity?
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  1. Thoracic cavity
  2. HEART, LUNGS
  3. THORACIC CAITY
196
  • The _____ system plays a role in moving fluids, wastes, and bones?
  • Directly causes mechanical motion
  • Muscular
197

The _____ system plays a role in moving fluids, wastes, and bones?

Excretory

198

The lower ribs are below the _____ region

Hypochondriac

199

Sum of all CHEMICAL PROCESSES that keep our bodies alive and healthy. It is divided into 2 phases (parts): CATABOLISM & ANABOLISM:

METABOLISM

200
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The central abdominal area is the _____ region.

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Hypogastric

201
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A _____ fracture occurred in the elbow area.

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dorsum

202
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The process of turning molecules that are ingested into forms that are compatible with the organism is _____.

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Assimilation

203
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The force that water exerts on a system is referred to as the ________.

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Hydrostatic pressure

204

a vertical line which divides the body into a left section and a right section.

Sagittal plane

205

a vertical line which divides the body into a front (anterior) section and back (posterior) section.

Coronal plane

206
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a horizontal line which divides the body into an upper (superior) section and a bottom (inferior) section. The plane divides the body into top and bottom.

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Transverse plane

207

subunits that make up nucleic acids

Nucleotides

208

the chemical bond that links two amino acids by connecting the amino group of one amino acid to the acid group of another

Peptide bond

209

a lipid containing phosphate group

phospholipids

210

a molecule made of many similar subunits

Polymer

211

a long chain of amino acids

polypeptide

212

one of two kinds of information-carrying nucleic acids found in cells; ribonucleic acid

RNA

213
  • a class of lipids with a structure that is different from other lipids; cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen are three well-known steroids
  • SEX HORMONES
  • Steroids
214

compounds composed of a glycerol molecule with three fatty acids attached

Triglycerides

215

adenosine triphosphate; a nucleotide composed of an adenine base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

216

pairs of complementary nucleic acid bases; that is, A and T or C and G

base pair

217

a polymer of nucleotides with the bases adenosine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine; deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA

218
  • proteins that speed up specific biological reactions
  • Enzymes may be damaged by high temperature. Enzymes have the ability to accelerate reactions as much as a billion-fold. Enzymes may use coenzymes derived from vitamins or cofactors from metallic elements.
  • ENZYMES
219

a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group at one end.

Fatty Acids

220
  1. the main form of sugar that circulates in the blood
  2. elect which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in human bodies
  1. Glucose
  2. glucose to CO2 and H2O
221
  1. In a DNA molecule, guanine would connect to ________.
  2. An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream would be best described as an example of
  1. cytosine
  2. excretion of metabolic waste
222

fatty molecules that dissolve poorly in water but dissolve well in a nonpolar solvent; fats and oils

Lipids

223

Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide; cancer cells do not undergo this process

TRUE

224

key information-carrying molecules in cells

nucleic acids

225

The coronal plane divides the body into _____ and _____ portions.

Posterior and anterior

226

The plane divides the body into left and right portions.

MEDIAN OR MIDSAGITAL

227

TOWARDS THE POINT OF REFERENCE

PROXIMAL

228

The plane divides the body into front and back.

FRONTAL OR CORONAL

229

ORGANS FOUND IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY

STOMACH, LIVER, SPLEEN, PANCREASE, PART OF THE LARGE INTENSITNE, PART OF SMALL INTESTINE.

230

DISTAL

AWAY FROM THE POINT OF REFERENCE

231

lateral

Towards the side

232

ORGANS FOUND IN THE PELVIC CAVITY

UTERUS, BLADDER, OVERIES

233

CORONAL

ANOTHER NAME FOR THE FRONTAL PLANE

234

SUPERFICIAL

TOWARDS THE SURFACE

235

What must happen before a cell can begin mitosis?

The chromosomes must be duplicated.

236

The centrosomes move away from each other and the nuclear envelope breaks up during which phase of mitosis?

prophase

237

The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell during which phase of mitosis?

Metaphase

238

The sister chromatids separate and begin moving toward opposite poles of the cell during which phase of mitosis?

Anaphase

239

The chromosomes arrive at the poles and nuclear envelopes form during which phase of mitosis?

Telophase

240

The spindle now can move into the center of the cell.
Kinetochores develop, which are linked to the chromosomes.

Prometaphase

241

The chemical symbol O=O means

the atoms are double bonded

242

What does CH4 mean?

There is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms.

243
  • Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?
  • Engulfment of small particles.
  • phagocytosis
244

An atom with a valence of 3 may have a total of ________ electrons.

NUMBER 13

245

AB → A + B is an example of a(n) ________ reaction. Answer:

Decomposition

246

Homogeneous, will not settle.

SOLUTIONS

247

Sucrose is a?

disaccharide

248
  • ________ is the division of the cytoplasmic mass into two parts.
  • Answer: At the end of the mitotic (M) phase, the cytoplasm divides in a process called ________.
  • Cytokinesis
249
  1. WATER IS?
  2. The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of body weight, is
  3. What is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body? Answer:
  1. COMPOUND and MOLECULE ( H2O,)
  2. WATER
  3. WATER
250

Choose the anatomical topic and definition that is not correctly matched.

Cytology: study of the structures in a particular region.

251

Which of the following is an example of a suspension?

BLOOD

252

In which quadrant of the abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?

LEFT UPPER QUADRANT

253

eicosanoids

REGULATE INFLAMMATION

254
  1. Why must a normal body temperature be maintained in order for chemical reactions to be continued at life-sustaining rates?
  1. If body temperature is too low, chemical reactions slow and eventually stop. If body temperature is too high, chemical reactions speed up and body proteins lose their normal shape, resulting in loss of function.
255

What major chemical is responsible for apoptosis?

caspases

256

Energy that travels in waves. Part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

RADIANT ENERGY

257

Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ______ reaction.

synthesis

258

molecule and compound

mean the same thing and can be used interchangeably.

259

A chemical bond is an energy relationship between outer electrons and neighboring atoms.

TRUE

260

Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin.

TRUE

261

In the compound H2CO3, what do the numbers 2 and 3 represent?

The 2 indicates that there are two hydrogen atoms in the compound and the 3 indicates that there are three oxygen atoms in the compound.

262

The most common extracellular ion is ________. Answer:

sodium

263

Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

molecular transport through the membrane

264

A process by which large particles may be taken into the protection of the body by invaders like bacteria, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis

TRUE