Mastering AP homeork Chemistry comes alive

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created 4 years ago by Mcha
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Mastering AP homeork Chemistry comes alive
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1
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  1. Which bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific three-dimensional shape?
  2. Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in human bodies.
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  1. Hydrogen
  2. glucose to CO2 and H2O
2
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  1. Sucrose is a ________.
  2. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of _____.
  3. What does the formula C6H12O6 mean
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  1. disaccharide
  2. glycogen
  3. There are, 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms.
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  1. When the bonds of ATP are broken, energy is released to do cellular work.
  2. Energy that travels in waves; part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  3. Represented by the flow of charged particles along a conductor or the flow of ions across a membrane.
  4. Legs moving the pedals of a bike.
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  1. Chemical Energy
  2. Radiant Energy
  3. Electrical Energy
  4. Mechanical Energy
4
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The unbonded chlorine atom has 17 electrons. Therefore, chlorine must have 17 protons and an atomic number of 17.

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Chemical reactions progress at a faster rate when the reacting particles are present in higher numbers. Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions, sometimes while undergoing reversible changes in shape. Chemical reactions proceed more quickly at higher temperatures.

5
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  1. Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ________ reaction
  2. Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?
  3. What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix? What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix?
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  1. Synthesis
  2. CH4
  3. secondary structure
6
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  1. Can be measured only by its effects on matter.
  2. Anything that occupies space and has mass.
  3. Although a man who weighs 175 pounds on Earth would be lighter on the moon and heavier on Jupiter, his ________ would not be different.
  4. Is a function of, and varies with, gravity.
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  1. Energy
  2. Matter
  3. Mass
  4. Weight
7
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  1. Smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties.
  2. Homogeneous, will not settle.
  3. A bond in which electrons are shared equally
  4. Will not scatter light.
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  1. Molecule
  2. Solutions
  3. Nonpolar covalent bond
  4. Solutions
8
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The three atoms shown represent three unique

The three atoms each contain different numbers of protons and are therefore

Which of the following is NOT a way to distinguish an acid from a base?

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elements.

When tasting a basic substance, it will have a bitter taste. When tasting an acidic substance, it will have a sour taste. A basic substance will have a slippery feel

9

A 65-year-old patient came to the emergency room with complaints of severe heartburn unrelieved by taking a "large handful" of antacids. Would you expect the pH to be relatively high, low, or normal for the patient's stomach contents, and why?

The pH would be high. Antacids are basic, and too many antacids would result in a relatively alkaline state.

10
  1. Formation of hydrogen bonds requires hydrogen atoms and what else?
  2. Which of the following correctly ranks the types of chemical bonds, in order, from strongest to weakest?
  3. Which of the following distinguishes hydrogen bonds from covalent bonds?
  4. Which of the following is not a result of hydrogen bonds?
  1. polar covalent bonds
  2. covalent, ionic, hydrogen
  3. Only hydrogen bonds can form between molecules.
  4. Two hydrogen atoms join together to form a molecule of hydrogen gas.
11
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Hydrogen gets a slight positive charge from the unequal sharing of electrons in polar covalent bonds, and it bonds to another atom with a slightly negative charge, again resulting from unequal electron sharing due to a polar covalent bond.

In covalent bonds, electrons are shared between atoms; in ionic bonds electrons are lost or gained; but hydrogen bonds are not true chemical bonds—they are weak attractions due to slight electrical imbalances. No electrons are directly involved.

Because hydrogen bonds are not true bonds, they do not always join atoms together within a single molecule. In water, for example, hydrogen bonds link water molecules together. This is referred to as an intermolecular attraction—it is between different atoms.

Hydrogen bonds occur when there are polar covalent molecules present, but hydrogen atoms join with each other through nonpolar covalent bonds.

12

The attraction between the slightly negative oxygen atom of one molecule and the slightly positively charged hydrogen atom within a separate water molecule is the basis of hydrogen bond formation.

...

13
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  1. What does the formula C6H12O6 mean?
  2. Which protein types are vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances
  3. Which of the following is NOT a subatomic particle?
  1. What does the formula C6H12O6 mean? There are 12 hydrogen, 6 carbon, and 6 oxygen atoms.
  2. molecular chaperones
  3. molecule
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  1. A bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved.
  2. What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol in neutral fats
  3. Which of the following is a neutralization reaction?
  4. Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the
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  1. Ionic bond
  2. 3:1
  3. B) HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O
  4. removal of a water molecule between each two units
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  1. have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors.
  2. Stress proteins are a type of protein called
  3. Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids
  4. What is a chain of more than 50 amino acids called?
  1. Base
  2. chaperones
  3. DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases
  4. protein
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  1. What does the polar end of a phospholipid contain?
  2. In a DNA molecule, guanine would connect to ____.
  3. Which of the following does not describe uses for the ATP molecule?
  1. phosphorus-containing group
  2. cytosine
  3. pigment structure
17
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  1. any atom is equal to the number of protons, not neutrons, in its nucleus.
  2. What is the difference between kinetic and potential energy?
  3. The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are.
  4. What is the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?
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  1. atomic number
  2. Kinetic energy is energy in action, while potential energy is stored energy.
  3. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
  4. ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
18
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reactions require less activation energy and therefore are initiated with a lower input of energy. This activation energy represents the energy necessary for driving the early stages of the reaction: creating contact between properly oriented substrates, breaking original bonds, and so on.

Enzyme-catalyzed

19
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Nearly all known elements have two or more structural variations called , which have the same number of protons and electrons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain.

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isotopes

20
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  1. Which of the following does not describe uses for the ATP molecule?
  2. Which of the following does NOT describe enzymes?
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  1. mechanical work, pigment structure, chemical work, transport across membranes.
  2. Some enzymes are purely protein. Enzymes work by raising the energy of activation. Each enzyme is chemically specific. Some enzymes are protein plus a cofactor.
21
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  1. A bond in which electrons are shared unequally.
  2. A bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved.
  3. bond in which electrons are shared equally.
  4. A type of bond important in tying different parts of the same molecule together into a three-dimensional structure.
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  1. Polar covalent bond
  2. Ionic bond
  3. Nonpolar covalent bond
  4. Hydrogen bond
22
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  1. Which of the following is an example of a decomposition reaction?
  2. Which of the following i description of an acid from a base?
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  1. MgO2 → Mg + O2
  2. When tasting a basic substance, it will have a bitter taste. When tasting an acidic substance, it will have a sour taste. A basic substance will have a slippery feel.
23
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A decomposition reaction occurs when a larger molecule is broken down into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms.

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24
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are highly electronegative and pull electrons away from the electropositive hydrogen atom

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Oxygen atoms

25
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  1. of an element is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
  2. The unit is the mass of one proton or one neutron
  3. The of an element is the average of the relative weights of all the isotopes of the element
  4. The one- or two-letter chemical shorthand designated to a chemical.
  1. atomic number
  2. atomic mass
  3. atomic weight
  4. atomic symbol
26
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Which of the following best defines potential energy?

This process involves the breaking down of large complex molecules into smaller, simpler molecules and atoms.

Potential energy is stored energy, which has the capacity to do work, but is not presently doing so.

decomposition

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When atoms or molecules combine to form larger, more complex molecules, the process is known as

processes involve both building larger molecules and breaking down others.

Anabolism

Exchange

28
  1. Salts are always .
  2. Which of the following elements is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?
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  1. ionic compounds
  2. NA (sodium)
29
  1. Which parts of atoms can interact (react) to form chemical bonds?
  2. Atoms of oxygen have a total of 8 electrons. Are these atoms stable, and why or why not?
  3. Which of the following is not produced through chemical bonding?
  4. Carbon atoms have four valence electrons. Are they likely to react with other atoms, and why or why not?
  1. valence electrons
  2. No, because the atoms have only 6 valence electrons, but need 8 for stability.
  3. atoms
  4. Yes, because they can become more stable by doing so.
30
  1. The molecular building blocks of proteins are amino acids.
  2. are built from glycerol and fatty acids.
  3. , which include DNA and RNA, are built from nucleotides.
  4. are built from monosaccharides.
  1. Protein molecular
  2. Lipids
  3. Nucleic acids
  4. Carbohydrates
31

form between two atoms when one atom donates an electron to the other atom.

Ionic bonds