The Surgical Patient Chapter 3 - Nicola

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1

Surgical Technologist primary role is to:

Assist the surgeon during the surgical procedure Establishment and protection of a sterile field
Care and handling of surgical instrumentation
Assistance with technical tasks throughout the surgical procedure

2

What are the components that make up an individual

Physical, psychological, social, and spiritual

3

Any need or activity related to genetics, physiology, or anatomy

Physical need

4

Any need, or activity, related to the identification and understanding of oneself

Physiological need

5

Any need, or activity, related to one's identification and understanding of one's place in an organized universe

Spiritual need

6

Any need, or activity, related to identification in one's identification or interaction with another individual or group

Social need

7

A means of prioritizing needs effective for basic understanding of individuals and for quick recognition of patient concerns

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

8

Views patient as a biopsychosocial individual
Constantly interacting with the environment with the ability to adapt by using coping skills

Roy Adaptation Model (Sister Callista Roy)

9

Patient does not want to accept the truth

Denial

10

Patient attempt to rationalize his/her illness - diabetes runs on my side of the family

Rationalization

11

Patient exhibits behaviors such as assuming a fetal position, excessive crying, pouting, and dependency on others.

Regression

12

Patient represses thoughts and feelings about his/her illness and does not want to hold any discussion cornering what is happening

Repression

13

It cant be happening to me - 1st temporary defense

Denial

14

Resentment, envy Why Me? - when the 1st stage cannot continue

Anger

15

Just let me live to see my son graduate - 3rd stage

Bargaining

16

Please don't take me away from my family - 4th stage when the patient can no longer deny the illness

Depression

17

I know I will be in a better place - 5th state when the patient has had enough time to work through the first 4 stages

Acceptance

18

Religion - turn body to east to face Mecca

Muslin tradition

19

Religion - Dying patient cannot be left alone, and cannot be touched until been offered last rites

Jewish

20

Religion - believe in reincarnation and that the last thoughts of a person before death determine the rebirth condition

Buddhists

21

Religion - feel cremation is the best way for the soul to begin its journey

Hindus

22

A patient suffering from a disease that is progressive and incurable. Palliative treatment is often prescribed.

Terminal

23

Long lasting condition, more than 4-6 weeks. Asthma, high blood pressure etc

Prolonged (chronic)

24

Greek: “good death”
American: “easy death” or “painless inducement of quick death”

Euthanasia

25

When the physician does nothing to preserve life

Passive euthanasia

26

Be it voluntary or involuntary both involve the administration of a drug to speed up the dying process

Active euthanasia

27

Allows patients the right to refuse treatment

AHA Patient Care Partnership

28

Requires medical facilities to inform patients of their right to choose the type and extent of medical care
Requires patients be provided with information concerning living wills and powers of attorney

Patient Self-Determination Act

29

Do not intubate, do not resuscitate
Hospital's can rescind during surgery therefore patients need to be specific if this is to carry over into surgery also

Part of a living will

30

When did organ transplantation begin

Early 1950's

31

Physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization

Prioritizing Needs: Maslow’s Hierarch

32

Developmental stages for human progression expressed in terms of a hierarchy

Maslow’s Hierarchy: Prioritizing Needs

33

The most basic needs are biological needs, such as the need for water, oxygen, food, and temperature regulation.

Survival or physiological

34

This level of need refers to a positive evaluation of oneself and others, a need to be respected and to respect others.

Prestige & Esteem needs

35

These needs refer to the perception on the part of the individual that his or her environment is safe.

Safety needs

36

These are basic social needs—to be known and cared for as an individual and to care for another.

Love and belonging

37

A “nonspecific response of the body to a demand”

Stress

38

Fulfil what one believes is one's purpose

Self-actualization
1st - top

39

The most commonly referred to type of stress—the type that has negative implications

Distress

40

What means “well” or “good,” is the term for the positive, desirable form of stress.

Eustress

41

Which patients feel much more threatened...

Pediatric

42

Who introduced the Five Stages of Grief

Kübler-Ross

43

The irreversible loss of all functions of the entire brain

Whole-brain death

44

This is the irreversible loss of higher-brain function. The lower brain stem continues to provide respiration, blood pressure, and a heartbeat without the assistance of a respirator.

Higher-brain death

45

The irreversible loss of cardiac and respiratory function. This is the permanent absence of heartbeat and respiration

Cardiac death

46

Legal documents used to speak for patients in the event that they cannot make decisions for themselves

Advanced Directive

47

A patient suffering from a disease that is progressive and incurable

Terminal

48

These patients are much more conscious about their bodies and privacy

Adolescents

49

Which religion performs Anointing of the Sick on a seriously ill person

Roman Catholic

50

No blood transfusion, and no abortions.
Birth controlled allowed

Jehovah’s Witness

51

This is the need to fulfill what one believes is one’s purpose.

Self-actualization

52

Who views the patient as a biopsychosocial individual that is constantly interacting with the environment with the ability to adapt by using coping skills in dealing with internal and external stressors

Sister Callista-Roy