Development Through the Lifespan: Exam 3 Flashcards

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Research on nutrition in middle childhood indicates that

malnutrition that persists from infancy or early childhood into the school years usually leads to permanent physical and mental damage.


Which of the following is supported by research on unintentional injuries in middle childhood?

Use of protective helmets leads to an 85 percent reduction in risk of head injury.


Research confirms that _________ plays a large role in accounting for boys' gross-motor superiority.

the social environment


One valid criticism of adult-organized youth sports is that

they overemphasize competition and substitute children's natural experimentation with rules and strategies.


Attention-Deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

is usually a lifelong disorder


Children who acquire effective self regulatory skills develop a sense of

academic self efficiency


In Sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing __________ intelligences.

Analytical, Creative, and Practical


Many studies have shown

combining phonics with whole language is the best approach for teaching beginning reading.


Mrs. Ritchie wants to foster her students' emotional intelligence. Her lesson plans should use active learning techniques that provide skill practice in __________ and __________.

respect and caring for other; resistance to unfavorable peer pressure


Research shows that children who engage in as little as 21 minutes of independent reading per day

are exposed to nearly 2 million words per year


Research on bilingual education shows that

a strategy that promotes children's native-language skills while they learn English is most effective for non-English-speaking minority children.


Studies show that educational self-fulfilling prophecies are especially strong

when teachers emphasize competition and publicly compare children.


According to Erikson, a sense of __________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children's self-confidence with negative responses.



As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in

feedback from close friends.


Compared to his Caucasian-American age mates, Leonard, an African-American fourth grader, is more likely to have

higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of ethnic pride.


Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make __________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.

mastery-oriented; ability


Teachers who are __________ and emphasize __________ tend to have mastery-oriented students.

helpful; learning over getting good grades


Which of the following statements about emotional self-regulation in middle childhood is true?

By age 10, most children shift adaptively between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping


Principal Allen wants to reduce prejudice at his middle school. Which of the following interventions should he use?

assign children to cooperative learning groups with peers of diverse backgrounds


__________ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, substance abuse, and antisocial behavior in adolescence and delinquency with criminality in early adulthood.



Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by

behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.


Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) __________ style in the early years.



A study conducted showed that fifth and sixth graders describe __________ as the most influential people in their lives.



The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is

shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing.


Research on child sexual abuse indicates that

the abuser is typically a parent or someone the parent knows well.


Most researchers today believe that adolescent development is

influenced by biological, psychological, and social forces.


During puberty, neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters. As a result, adolescents

react more strongly to stressful events and experience pleasurable stimuli more intensely.


Sleep-deprived adolecents

are more likely to suffer from anxiety and depression.


Which of the following statements about sex differences in adolescents' reactions to pubertal changes is true?

A few girls tell a friend that they are menstruating, but more boys tell a friend about spermarche.


Which of the following statements about adolescent moodiness is true?

Younger adolescents' mood swings are strongly related to situational changes


__________ is a modern substitute for the actual physical departure of young people from the family group
that takes place in industrialized nations.

Psychological distancing


Randy is viewed by both adults and peers as relaxed, independent, and self-confident. Maria is viewed by
both groups as physically attractive, lively, and sociable. Which of the following is likely to be true?

. Randy is an early-maturing boy, and Maria is a late-maturing girl.


Which of the following statements about individuals with bulimia nervosa is true?

They usually feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits and desperately want help.


Research shows that many adolescents do not use contraception during sexual activity because they

fail to apply their reasoning skills to everyday situations.


Which of the following three-phase sequences do many homosexual adolescents and adults move through in
coming out to themselves and others?

feeling different, confusion, and self-acceptance


Studies show that most adolescents are aware of basic facts about AIDS but

are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against other STDs.


In Canada and Western Europe, where community- and school-based clinics offer adolescents contraceptives
and where universal health insurance helps pay for them, __________ than in the United States.

pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion rates are much lower


Adolescent drug experimentation

should not be taken lightly because a single heavy dose can lead to permanent injury or death.


The imaginary audience is adolescents' belief that they are

the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.


Compared with adults making decisions, teenagers

less often fall back on intuitive judgments


Which of the following statements about school transitions is true?

For well-adjusted youths, grade point averages tend to increase with the high school transition.


Which of the following statements about part-time work during high school is true?

The more hours students work, the more likely they are to drop out of school.


Which of the following factors is predictive of high self-esteem in adolescence?

authoritative parenting


Which of the following statements about identity development is true?

The majority of young people change from moratorium to foreclosure or diffusion in young adulthood.


Adolescents who __________ tend to be in a state of moratorium or identity achievement.

feel attached to their parents but also free to voice their own opinions


Which of the following is a strategy for helping minority adolescents resolve identity conflicts

respecting native languages and unique learning styles in school


At Kohlberg's Stage 5 of moral development, individuals

regard laws and rules as flexible instruments for furthering human purposes.


According to Kohlberg, mature moral thinkers

realize that behaving in line with their beliefs is vital for creating and maintaining a just social world.


Religious involvement

promotes responsible academic and social behavior.


Mild family conflict

is associated with a rise in antisocial behavior, particularly for older adolescents.


Early dating

is related to drug use, delinquency, and poor academic achievement.


The most common psychological problem of adolescence is



Which of the following statements about adolescent suicide is true?

Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths are at a high risk for suicide


Which of the following statements about factors related to juvenile delinquency is true?

Girls who experience parental divorce and separation are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior
than boys who experience parental divorce and separation.


During the twenties and thirties, changes in physical appearance and declines in body functioning are

so gradual that most are hardly noticeable.


When an adult suffers from atherosclerosis, it typically develops

early in life and progresses during middle adulthood.


In the United States,

many people show large weight gains between the ages of 25 and 40.


__________ is the single most important preventable cause of death in industrialized nations.

Cigarette smoking


Which of the following statements about the sex lives of American adults is true?

Most married adults say they are only somewhat happy with their sex lives


The overall rate of STDs is higher among women than men because

it is at least twice as easy for a man to infect a woman with any STD than for a woman to infect a man.


Which of the following is an accurate statement about risk and resilience in emerging adulthood?

Emerging adults are susceptible to many risks due to their poor decision making and uncertainty about
the future.


According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love,

intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.


Sal and Sadie have been married for 40 years. When asked to compare their current relationship to when they
were newlyweds, they are most likely to say that

their marriage has more passionate love now than earlier.


Gloria's marriage was riddled with jealousy, emotional highs and lows, and desperation about whether her
husband returned her affection. Though she offered support to her husband, Gloria did so in ways that poorly
fit his needs. She was also quick to express fear and anger. Based on this information, it is likely that Gloria
has a(n) __________ attachment history



Which of the following statements about other-sex friendships is true?

When a solid other-sex friendship evolves into a romance, it may be more stable and enduring than a
romantic relationship formed without a foundation in friendship.


Emma left home to attend college and lived on her own until she got married. As her own children grew up
and left home, her parenting responsibilities declined. She eventually retired and her husband died. This
series of phases that Emma has experienced is referred to as the

social clock.


__________ is the most consistent predictor of marital stability.

Age of marriage


Postponing childbearing until the late twenties or thirties

. eases the transition to parenthood.


Parents of __________ often report a dip in marital and life satisfaction.



A recent study of same-sex couples found that same-sex civil unions were __________ heterosexual

less likely to dissolve than


Jenelle, a divorced mother with two children, is marrying William, a divorced father with three children.
Which of the following statements is probably true

It will take three to five years for Jenelle and William's blended family to develop the connectedness
and comfort of intact biological families


Research findings indicate that

gay and lesbian parents are as committed to and effective as heterosexual parents.


During midlife, most adults begin to

experience life-threatening health episodes—if not in themselves, then in their partners and friends.


Jeanine is 55. According to her doctor, Jeanine's reproductive capacity has ended. She has reached the midlife
reproductive transition called

the climacteric


Episodes of impotence

are a sign of serious sexual dysfunction


Among the middle-aged adults who rate their health unfavorably

men are more likely than women to suffer from fatal illnesses


The leading causes of death in middle age are __________ and __________.

cancer; cardiovascular disease


Symptoms of heart disease in women tend to

get overlooked by doctors.


Which of the following statements about the Type A behavior pattern is true?

Current evidence pinpoints hostility as a toxic ingredient of Type A in both men and women.


Individuals who are repeatedly enraged are more likely to be



Suzanne viewed life as fluid. She expected change and accepted it as inevitable. When Suzanne was faced
with a problem, she identified it and decided what to do about it. Suzanne used a(n) __________ coping



Erikson's psychological conflict of midlife is called __________ versus __________.

generatively; stagnation


Quentin went to college with the goal of becoming a social worker. Instead, he gave in to pressure from his
new spouse and changed his major to business. When looking back at age 50, Quentin wished he had pursued
his original dream of becoming a social worker. Quentin is experiencing

life regrets .


__________ is common in middle adulthood.

Midlife crisis


Gilles, age 50, tells his brother, "I'd like to maintain my physical health and work on getting emotionally
stronger. I want to be a good friend and a role model to my nephews and nieces. I don't want to be that guy
who never comes to family get-togethers because he is too busy working. I want to be successful in my
career, but not at the expense of my family. Of course, I want to find my own special partner, but if I don't, I
know I'll always have you and the kids." Gilles is discussing his

possible selves


Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing mother-in-law. Along with her mother, she is one
of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the __________ generation.



Older adults who __________ adapt more favorably and feel better about it.

see aging as inevitable and uncontrollable


Sedentary healthy older adults up to age 80 who begin endurance training

should focus on non-weight-bearing activities.


Mr. Martin reached the last years of his life feeling whole, complete, and satisfied with his achievements. He
realized that the paths he followed, abandoned, and never selected were necessary for fashioning a
meaningful life course. Mr. Martin has achieved

sense of disengagement


Being deeply religious

seems to have little effect—positive or negative—on mental and physical health during the last year of


One reason social withdrawal is so common in nursing home settings is that

older adults prefer to be alone over being in the company of residents.


__________ are the most frequently reported types of elder abuse.

. Physical neglect, sexual abuse, and financial abuse


Which of the following is an essential ingredient of a "good death"?

offering the dying person care, affection, companionship, and esteem


Which of the following statements about enhancing children's understanding of the death concept is true?

Discussing death candidly with children fuels their fears


Kübler-Ross recommends that family members and health professionals

not prolong denial by distorting the truth about the person's condition


Palliative care involves

care aimed at relieving pain and other symptoms.


Which of the following statements about advance medical directives is true?

A living will is more flexible than a durable power of attorney for health care.


People respond to __________ with __________.

grief; bereavement


Which of the following statements about the dual-process model of coping with loss is true?

Effective coping requires people to oscillate between dealing with the emotional consequences of loss
and attending to life changes


Marion was forbidden by his gay partner's family to attend his partner's funeral or burial service. Marion is at
risk for

disenfranchised grief.


Death education at all levels

strives to prepare students to be informed consumers of medical and funeral services.