Principles of Anatomy and Physiology: Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 Flashcards


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An Introduction to the Human Body
Subjects:
anatomy and physiology, science, life sciences, human anatomy & physiology
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1

anatomy

the science of body structures and the relationships among them

2

dissection

the careful cutting apart of the body structures to study their relationships

3

physiology

the science of body functions-how the body works

4

embryology

the first eight weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg

5

developmental biology

the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death

6

cell biology

cellular structure and functions

7

histology

microscopic structure of tissues

8

gross anatomy

structures that can be examined without a microscope

9

systemic anatomy

structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory systems

10

regional anatomy

specific regions of the body such as the head or chest

11

surface anatomy

surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation (gentle touch)

12

imaging anatomy

body structures that can be visualized with techniques such as x-rays, MRI, and CT scans

13

pathological anatomy

structural changes (gross to microscopic) associated with disease

14

neurophysiology

functional properties of nerve cells

15

endocrinology

hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions

16

cardiovascular physiology

functions of the heart and blood

17

immunology

the body's defenses against disease-causing agents

18

respiratory physiology

functions of the air passageways and lungs

19

renal physiology

functions of the kidneys

20

exercise physiology

changes in the cell and organ functions due to muscular activity

21

pathophysiology

functional changes associated with disease and aging

22

atoms

the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions

23

molecules

two or more atoms joined together

24

chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, system level

levels of structural organization in the human body

25

cellular level

molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural units of an organism that are composed of chemicals

26

tissues

groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function

27

epithelial tissue

covers body surfaces

28

connective tissue

connects, supports, and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other organs

29

muscular tissue

contracts to make body parts move and generates heat

30

nervous tissue

carries information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses

31

organ level

different types of tissues are joined together

32

organs

structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues

33

system

related organs with a common function

34

organism

any living individual

35

metabolism

the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body

36

catabolism

the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components

37

anabolism

the building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components

38

responsiveness

the body's ability to detect and respond to changes

39

movement

includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells

40

growth

an increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, increase in the number of cells, or both

41

differentiation

the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state

42

reproduction

the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or the production of a new individual