AST Practice Exam #3

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1

Which cranial nerve is affected by trigeminal neuralgia?A. IB. VC. VID. VII

V. (5)

2

What is used to lubricate the donor site and reduce friction from the dermatome?

Mineral oil

3

What is an example of proper sterile technique when performing the prep for a split-thickness skin graft?

Donor site first

4

What is the recommended range of intra-abdominal pressure in an adult patient when using an insufflator during a laparoscopic procedure?

12-15 mm Hg

5

What refers to the inability to direct both eyes at the same object

Strabismus

6

What procedure is performed to correct chronic cerebral ischemia?

Endarterectomy

7

According to the Rule of Nines what percentage is assigned to the front and back of the trunk?,

18%

8

What term refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells?

Hyperplasia

9

A second intention wound heals by what?

Granulation

10

Intraoperative ventricular arrhythmias are treated with what?

Lidocaine

11

How many milliliters equal two ounces?

60

12

Covering a sterile backtable for later use is permissible or not permissible?

Not permissible under any circumstances

13

In which position would a patient be placed to counteract hypovolemia?

Trendelenburg

14

What type of suture creates the least tissue trauma and drag?

Swaged monofilament

15

What organization has legal oversight for the safety of healthcare providers in the work place?

OSHA

16

Which level of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is most applicable to the surgical patient?

Physiological and survival

17

What would be an incorrect technique when removing the sterile gown and gloves?

Gloves removed first

18

What type of procedure might require a laparoscopy combination drape?

Abdominoperineal resection

19

Cell destruction by steam sterilization occurs by:

Coagulation of protein

20

Which technique is not acceptable when draping?

Unfold drape before bringing up to the OR table

21

A patient's fingernail polish is removed for what reason?

To allow for use of a pulse oximeter

22

What is the purpose of maintaining air exchange rate at 15-20 times per hour in the OR?

To reduce microbial count

23

How many mL of water is necessary to inflate a 5-mL balloon on the Foley indwelling catheter?

10 mL

24

If an ophthalmologist orders trimming of eyelashes how is it safely performed?,

Fine scissors coated with water-soluble gel

25

What is the correct technique for performing the surgical skin prep?

Incision site to periphery using circular motion

26

The laboratory test that determines the ratio of erythrocytes to whole blood is what?

Hematocrit

27

What is the proper procedure to follow when a pack of sponges contains an incorrect number after the patient has entered the OR?

Hand off the sterile field and isolate

28

Which of the following types of specimens would not be placed in a preservative solution?A. ColonB. CalculiC. TonsilsD. Uterus

Calculi

29

Where should the surgical technologist begin when performing closing counts?

Operative field

30

What catheter tips is used in a patient with a urethral stricture?

Coude

31

What type of procedure would require a stent dressing?

Neck

32

What is used to ensure the preservation of the facial nerve during a parotidectomy?

Nerve stimulator

33

What hemostatic agents is contraindicated for use in the presence of infection?

Absorbable collagen

34

During closure of a nephrectomy in the lateral position the OR table is straightened to facilitate what?,

Tissue approximation

35

What must be tested prior to the use of a fiberoptic bronchoscope?

Light source

36

Excision of a constricted segment of the aorta with reanastomosis is performed to correct what?

Coarctation of the aorta

37

Which diagnoses would a patient undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

Choledocholithiasis

38

The high ligation of the gonadal veins of the testes performed to reduce venous plexus congestion is a/an what?

Varicocelectomy

39

Trauma to two of the following cranial nerves would result in the loss of smell and vision?

I and II

40

What is performed for suspected ectopic pregnancy?

Culdocentesis

41

What is the correct procedure for treatment of glaucoma?

Iridectomy

42

What procedure is performed to immobilize the jaw following a mandibular fracture?

Arch bar application

43

After a total arthroplasty procedures what would require the postoperative use of an abduction splint?

Hip

44

Untreated acute otitis media may result in what?

Mastoiditis

45

What is used intraoperatively to assess vascular patency?

Doppler ultrasound

46
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The instrument shown what and would be used during what procedure?

Hurd dissector-Pillar retractor used for a tonsillectomy

47

What is the body's primary source of energy?

Carbohydrates

48

What is compressed during a rapid-sequence induction and intubation?

Cricoid cartilage

49

What term refers to the spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body?

Metastasis

50

The shared passageway for food and air is the what?

Pharynx

51

The structure that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the what?

Epididymis

52

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the what?

Bicuspid

53

Which characteristic describes an amphiarthrosis?

Slightly Movable

54

What is the most abundant ion in the body?

Calcium

55

What is a method of bacterial survival when environmental conditions are not conducive to growth and viability?

Spore formation

56

What organ detects changes in the level of insulin and releases chemicals to regulate the level of blood glucose?

Pancreas

57

What does the term strike-through mean?

Soaking of moisture from unsterile to sterile layers

58

What monitoring devices would be used within a vessel?

Swan Ganz

59

When adding a 30 mL of injectable saline to 30 mL of 0.5% Marcaine what strength does the drug become?,

0.25%30x.5=60xX60/30=.5/X30x.5=60xX15=60X15/60=60X/60X=.25

60

What action should be taken if the patient has withdrawn the surgical informed consent prior to surgery?

Do not transport patient and inform the surgeon

61

Confining and containing instruments with bioburden prevents what?

Cross-contamination

62

The unsterile size of the perimeter of a sterile wrap is what?

1 inch

63

A substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microbes on living tissue is a/an what?

Antiseptic

64

What action should be taken by the transporter if a discrepancy occurs in the identification of a patient in the nursing unit?

Do not transport, inform unit supervisor and OR personnel

65

A patient may be asked to shower at home with an antimicrobial soap before coming to the hospital for surgery for what reason?

To achieve a cumulative antimicrobial effect

66

What are the sequential steps performed prior to entrance into the sterile field?

Scrub, gown, glove

67

Which area is prepped last when performing the skin prep for a Bartholin's cystectomy?

Anus

68

The sterile surgical technologist should drape a table from where?

Front to back

69

What can be injured if the arm is placed on the arm board greater that 90 degrees?

Brachial plexus

70

What is the purpose of the third lumen in a three-way indwelling Foley catheter?

To instill irrigation fluids

71

Which of the following enlarges and illuminates the surgical field during cataract procedures?

Operating microscope

72

Small radiopaque surgical patties used during cranial procedures are called what?

Cottonoids

73

What hemostatic agents must be applied dry and only handled with dry gloves and instruments?

Avitene

74

Which surgical specialty would utilize a phacoemulsification machine?

Opthalmology

75

Which lasers would be contraindicated for use in the posterior chamber of the eye?

Carbon dioxide

76

In which structure of the heart are the leads for a permanent pacemake placed?

Right ventricle

77

Which diagnoses would a patient require pancreaticojejunostomy?

Alcoholic pancreatitis

78

Which procedure would a Denis-Browne ring retractor be used?

Retropubic prostatectomy

79

Which cranial nerve is severed as a last resort treatment of Meniere's disease?

VIII

80

Brachytherapy is performed to treat what?

Cervical cancer

81

Which procedure is performed to improve the vision of patients with myopia?

Radial Keratotomy

82

The facial fracture that involves the complete separation of the maxilla from the cranial base is a/an what?

LeFort I

83
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What is the name of this instrument?

Bennett retractor

84

Where is the incision for a Caldwell-Luc procedure made?

Canine fossa

85

The device used for real-time intraoperative assessment of blood flow is a/an what?

Doppler

86
card image

The needle holder shown above would be used during what procedure and what is the name of it?

Craniotomy Castroviejo needle holder

87

A chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food is what?

Catabolism

88

Which structure of the ear is responsible for equilibrium?

Semicircular canals

89

The first step of urine production when fluids and dissolved substances are forced through a membrane by pressure is called what?

Glomerular filtration

90

The adipose tissue overlying the symphysis is the what?

Mons pubis

91

The cranial nerve that regulates secretion of gastric juice is the what?

X

92

Phagocytosis by the white blood cells is an example of which line of defense?

Second

93

When opening a sterile wrapper the unsterile person should open the first corner how?,

Away from self

94

Which is the least inert of the synthetic meshes?

Polyester fiber

95

What radiopaque contrast medium is used intraoperatively when the patient is allergic to iodine?

Renograffin

96

What legal term would apply to a case when a non-English speaking patient signs a surgical informed consent in English but does not fully understand it?,

Assault and battery

97

Which psychosocial factors is important for the surgical team to address for pediatric patients?

Separation anxiety

98

What is the surgical technologist's role during the transfer of the patient from the OR bed to the stretcher?

Maintains sterility and integrity of the backtable

99

When breaking down the sterile field the surgical technologist should place the grossly contaminated instruments in what?,

Basin with sterile water

100

How many minutes are unwrapped instruments with no lumens sterilized at 270 degrees F?

3

101

What is the recommended method of hair removal from an operative site?

Clippers with disposable heads

102

What must be in the chart prior to the patient being taken to the OR per The Joint Commission?

History and physical

103

An identification bracelet is placed on a surgical patient upon admission to the:

Facility

104

To maintain control of the stretcher the patient should be transported to the OR how?,

Feet first

105

At what point is it appropriate to lower the leg when draping for a knee arthroscopy?

After the tourniquet has been inflated

106

Which structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye?

Iris

107

A capillary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the what?

Glomerulus

108

The kidneys are located in the:

Retroperitoneal space

109

The most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is what?

Sodium

110

The set of teeth that erupt at about 6 months of age and are later replaced are the what?

Deciduous teeth

111

What is a frequently used IV barbiturate for general anesthesia induction?

thiopental

112

Which artery does not arise directly from the aorta?

Vertebral

113

How long must an item be immersed in glutaraldehyde to be sterile?

10 hours

114

Which chemical substances causes the immune system to form antibodies?

antigens

115

What is a surgical procedure for the treatment of acute otitis media?

myringotomy

116

How is the patient positioned on the OR table for a knee arthroscopy?

supine, knee at lower break

117

Which of the following instrument sets will be needed when a frontal sinus fracture repair is performed?A. PlasticB. CraniotomyC. OphthalmicD. Vascular

Craniotomy

118

Which procedure is performed for cervical incompetence?

shirodkar

119

What surgical instrument is used to visualize the prostate and remove tissue during a TURP?

Resectoscope

120

What facilitates exposure for thyroidectomy?

interscapular pillow

121

What type of needles would be used for a liver biopsy?

Tru-Cut

122

Why is cardioplegia used?

Causes diastolic arrest

123

What is the risk if a tourniquet is inflated for a prolonged period of time?

Tissue necrosis

124

What type of specialty equipment uses liquid nitrogen and is often utilized to repair retinal detachments?

Cryotherapy unit

125

What is done to the umbilicus during the abdominal skin rep?

Prepped separately with cotton applicators

126

An axillary role is placed for lateral positioning to do what?

Facilitate respiration

127

Which nerve could be damaged by improperly padded stirrups?

Peroneal

128

Frozen sections are sent to pathology when?

immediately without preservatives

129

What procedure would be performed with the patient in the lateral position?

Nephrectomy

130

Which heat-resistant spore-forming Bacillus does the steam sterilization biological indicator contain?,

stearothermophilus

131

The process by which blood cells are formed is known as what?

Hemopoiesis

132

The pacemaker of the heart is/are what?

SA node

133

Thought processes take place where?

Cerebral cortex

134

Kantrex bacitracin or Ancef mixed with saline for irrigation would do what?

Inhibit surgical site infection

135

What sterilizers operates with condition exposure, exhaust and dry cycles?

Gravity air displacement

136

Preoperative bladder drainage prior to D&C would be performed with which catheters?

14 Fr. Robinson

137

In the OR HEPA is a type of what?,

Air filter

138

What precaution is utilized to prevent cardiovascular complications when positioning an anesthetized patient?

Move patient slowly

139

Why is the orientation of the vein graft reversed during a CABG?

Presence of valves

140

Which neurosurgical retractors is handheld?

Cushing

141

Which of the following incisions may be used for the repair of a zygomatic fracture?A. Below lower eyelidB. CoronalC. Angle of the mandibleD. Preauricular

Below lower eyelid

142

The principal male hormone produced in the testes is what?

Testosterone

143

What is not a true statements for paper-plastic peel pack

Staples are an acceptable method of closing peel packs

144

Following a TURP a patient may have what placed for bladder irrigation and compression?

3-way Foley

145

What is a correct statement when using the closed-gloving technique?

Hand must not extend beyond cuffs

146

What drainage device is preferred for a radical neck dissection?

Jackson-Pratt

147

Which arteries are formed by the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta?

Iliac

148

The basic unit of the nervous system is what?

Neuron

149

The correct sterilization times required to render specific items sterile are initially established by what?

Equipment manufacturer

150

What procedure involves a series of treatments that result in permanent placement of prosthetic teeth?

Dental implants

151

In addition to temperature time and moisture, what other factor determines the outcome of the steam sterilization process?,

Pressure

152

The inner lining of the uterus is the what?

Endometrium

153

Which sterilization processes is most economical?

Steam

154

The basic living structural and functional unit of the body is known as the what?,

Cell

155

The roof of the mouth is formed by the what?

Hard and soft palates

156

In what position would a patient be placed following a tonsillectomy?

Lateral

157

What classification of drug reduces tissue inflammation?

Steroids

158

What is the result of adding epinephrine to a local anesthetic?

Prolong the anesthetic effect

159

What is not a type of sterilizing agent?

Boiling water

160

A diagnostic procedure performed for patients with possible prostatic cancer is known as a what?

Needle biopsy

161

How many hours is the steam biological indicator incubated?

24

162

What agent is used to flush the harvested saphenous vein during CABG?

Heparinized saline

163

In which of the following cases might the surgeon use a Gigli saw?

Craniotomy

164

Low level disinfectants kill most microbes but typically do not destroy:

Spores

165

Polymethyl methacrylate would most likely be used on which procedures?

Total knee arthroplasty

166

Which item should not be sterilized by dry heat?

Linen packs

167

What is a Verres needle used for during a laparoscopy?

To install CO2

168

Whiat method uses ultrasonic energy to fragment the lens?

Phacoemulsification

169

In procedure would fine hooks of carious angles be used?

Stapedectomy

170

Which incisional approach would be used for a splenectomy?

Left Subcostal

171

During a strabismus correction resection has a greater effect on which muscle?,

Lateral rectus

172

What is the best site for obtaining cortical bone graft?

Iliac crest

173

What is a non-electrolytic and isotonic solution used during a TURP?A.

Glycine

174

The structure that allows the eardrum to vibrate freely and connects the middle ear and the oropharynx is the what?

Eustachian tube

175

What procedures may require use of a manometer to check CSF pressure?

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt