Ch. 18 The Endocrine System Test Bank Questions Flashcards


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1

When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called?

Down Regulation

2

These hormones act on neighboring cells without entering the bloodstream?

Local hormones, Paracrines, and Autocrines

3

These are lipids soluble hormones derived from cholesterol

Steroids

4

Which of the following is a major eicosanoid?

Protaglandins, and Leukotrienes

5

What is a major difference in the action of a water soluble hormone versus a lipid soluble hormone?

The use of a second messenger

6

When one hormone opposing the action of another hormone it is called?

Antagonistic effects

7

Which of the following is not a way a hormone secretion is regulated?

Signals from the peripheral nervous system

8

What controls the anterior pituitary gland?

Actions of the hypothalamic hormones

9

Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth

Human Growth Hormone (hGH)

10

Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?

Prolactin

11

Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates Cortisol production?

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

12

Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates sex cell production?

Leutinizing hormone

13

The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise of?

The anterior pituitary

14

How many hormones do the five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete?

Seven

15

Which type of anterior pituitary cell secretes human growth hormone?

Somatotrophs

16

Which hormones does the posterior pituitary produce?

Oxytocin and Antidiruetic hormones

17

The amount of ADH that is secreted varies with?

Blood osmotic pressure

18

Which if the following hormones opposes the actions of the parathyroid hormone?

Calcitonin

19

Which of the following is NOT a means of synthesizing and secreting T3 and T4?

Hydrolysis of calcium

20

Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of which ions in the house?

Calcium

21

Complete loss of the Aldosterone will lead to death due to?

Dehydration

22

Which of the following is NOT a glucocorticoid effect?

Increase in blood cell production

23

Which blood glucose lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cell?

Insulin

24

Which hormone promotes metabolic rate?

Thyroid hormone

25

Which hormone is stimulate by decreases in blood glucose?

Glucagon

26

Which of the below hormones is part of the body's long term response to stress?

Cortisol, hGH, and Thyroid hormones

27

The responses of the body to long term stress does NOT include which one of the following responses?

Increased heart rate

28

This is an amine hormone derived from seratonin

Melatonin

29

Endocrine structures

Release their secretions directly into body fluids

30

Hormones known as "Catecholamines" are?

Amino acid derivatives

31

Peptide hormones are?

Composed of amino acids

32

Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include?

Peptides, Steroids, Eicosanoids, and amino acid derivatives

33

Gap junctions

Coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells, coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells, and the propagation of action potentials from one cell to the next at electrical synapses.

34

_______ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues

Hormones

35

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be ______ when released into the bloodstream, but _______ when released at synapses.

Hormones, and Neurotransmitters

36

The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the _______ system in many ways?

Endocrine

37

Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?

Catecholamines, Peptide hormones, and Eicosanoids

38

Steroid hormones

Bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells

39

When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the?

Second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

40

Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect?

Quantities of enzymes, Activities of enzymes, Synthesis of enzymes, and gating of ion channels

41

The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually

a G protein

42

When a G protein becomes activiated and causes an activation of enzymes?

ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

43

Which of the following substances acts as a second messenger?

Cyclic AMP

44

Cells can respond to ______ hormones at a times

Several

45

An activates G protein can trigger?

The opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane, The release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, A fall in cAMP levels, and A rise in cAMP levels

46

All target cells?

Have hormone receptors and respond to chemical signals

47

Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein

Calmodulin

48

After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex?

Gene transcription is initiated

49

The most complex endocrine responses that integrates the nervous and endocrine system

Hypothalamus

50

Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?

Blood level of an ion-like potassium, blood level of glucose, blood level of a hormone, and nervous stimuli

51

Regulatory factors that control secretion of anterior pituitary hormones are released by neurons at the _______ of the hypothalamus

Median eminence

52

Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture

ADH and Oxytocin

53

The hypophyseal portal system

Has 2 capillary plexuses connected by short veins, Carries neurosecreations to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, and carries ADH and Oxytocin

54

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a _______ organ?

Endocrine

55

The hypothalamus controls secretion by the anterior pituitary by

Secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system

56

Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?

Loss of ADH secretion

57

Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release

FSH, TSH, LH, and GH

58

The posterior pituitary gland secretes

ADH

59

The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is

MSH

60

Which of the following is released due to sensory input and thus part of a neuroendocrine reflex?

Oxytocin

61

The hormone oxytocin

Promotes uterine contractions, Is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands, and Rises during sexual arousal

62

Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called

Somatomedins

63

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

TSH

64

The pituitary hormone that controls the release of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex is

ACTH

65

The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is

FSH

66

The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

LH

67

The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is

Prolactin

68

The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is

Growth Hormone

69

The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is

ADH

70

Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of

ADH

71

The primary function of ADH is to

Decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

72

The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?

Nine

73

TSH plays a key role in the _______ of thyroid hormones

Synthesis and release

74

If the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

75

The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is

Oxytocin

76

Which of the following is NOT and action of TSH

Inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

77

After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?

ADH

78

The testes produce

Testosterone

79

The ovaries secrete ______ when stimulated by FSH

Estrogen

80

PRL is to ________ as ACTH is to ________.

Prolactin; and Corticotropin

81

Which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin?

Prostate, Ductus deferens, Mammary glands, and Uterus

82

Which of the following cooperate to prepare the mammary glands for milk secretion?

Prolactin, Estrogens, Progesterone, and Placental hormones

83

Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?

Increased oxygen consumption, heart rate, sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation and body temperature

84

Thyroid hormone contains the element

Iodine

85

The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting the body temperature is ?

Thyroxine

86

Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

Thyroid gland

87

The C cells of the thyroid gland produce

Calcitonin

88

Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?

In the lumen of the thyroid follicle

89

A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is

Calcitonin

90

Increased levels of the hormone ______ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.

PTH

91

The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

Parathyroid hormone

92

The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that

Increases the level of calcium ions in the blood

93

Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doent

Build up bone

94

Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?

Parathyroid glands, and parathyroid hormone

95

The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces

Androgens

96

The zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex produces

Glucocorticoids

97

The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex produces

Mineralocorticoids

98

The adrenal medulla produces

Epinephrine

99

A hormone that promotes glucose formation in the liver is?

Cortisol

100

A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is

Aldosterone

101

A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is

Cortisol

102

Cells of the adrenal cortex produce

Aldosterone

103

Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of?

Aldosterone

104

The adrenal medulla produces the hormones?

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

105

Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine

106

Damage to cells of the zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex would result in?

Decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

107

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the?

Zona reticularis

108

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is?

Insulin

109

When blood glucose levels fall....

Glucagon is released

110

The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

Insulin

111

The F cells of the pancreatic islets produce

pancreatic polypeptide

112

The exocrine portion of the pancreas produce

Digestive enzymes

113

The pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans)

Contain four types of endocrine cells

114

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is ?

Insulin

115

The targets for insulin is

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Adipocytes and Liver cells

116

Alpha cells are to ______ as beta cells are to _____

Glucagon and Insulin

117

When blood glucose levels rise

Insulin is released

118

Pinealocytes produce

Melatonin

119

Melatonin is produced by the

Pineal gland

120

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia

In very young children

121

Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in

Diabetes mellitus

122

The term used to describe excess production of urine is

Polyuria

123

Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?

Low blood glucose

124

In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus

Blood glucose levels are very high, excessive thirst is shown, glucose is present in the urine in large amounts, and a large excretion of urine occurs

125

If a diabetes patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting?

Glucagon

126

When hormones interact they can produce any of the following kinds of effects except?

Bucolic

127

Which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells?

Erythropoietin

128

Proper growth requires which of these hormones?

Thyroid hormone, Calcitriol, Insulin, and Growth hormone

129

The kidneys secrete

Renin, Erythropoietin, and Calcitriol

130

The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of

Angiotensin

131

Hormones can operate on the _____ level of organization.

Cellular, Tissue, Organ, and Organismic

132

In general, the effects of natriuretic peptides are ____ to those of the renin-angiotensin system

Antagonistic

133

Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to which of the following?

Increased blood levels of renin, Elevated blood levels of angiotensin, and Increased blood levels of erythropoietin

134

The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaption syndrome (GAS) is

Epinephrine

135

During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is

Mobilization of energy reserves

136

If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ______ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the?

Glucocorticoids

137

During the resistance phase of the general adaption syndrome (GAS)

Lipid reserves are mobilized

138

The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by

Decreased resistance to disease and infection

139

If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might that have on blood chemistry?

Both an increase of insulin and an increase of blood glucose

140

Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause

Gigantism

141

Too little secretion of cortisol causes

Addison disease

142

The condition known as goiter can result from too

Little iodine in the diet

143

Inadequate iodine in the diet may leas to

Hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Goiter, and High blood levels of TSH

144

Cushing disease results from an excess of

Glucocorticoids

145

Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?

Growth hormone

146

Hormones may circulate freely or be bound to _______ proteins

Transport

147

The intracellular protein _____ binds calcium ions. This complex can than activate enzymes.

Calmodulin

148

Receptors for ______, peptides hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.

Amino acid derivatives

149

Peripheral cells that respond to a hormone are called?

Target cells

150

The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the ?

Neurohypophysis

151

The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the ?

Adenohypophysis

152

Hormones that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called?

Gonadotropins

153

The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the ?

Isthmus

154

The thyroid gland is composed of many ______ that produce and store thyroid hormone

Thyroid follicles

155

Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid?

Tyrosine

156

The ______ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney?

Adrenal

157

The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the ?

Adrenal cortex

158

The inner portion of the adrenal gland is the ?

Adrenal medulla

159

The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones called?

Corticosteroids

160

Two hormones that have opposing effects are called?

Antagonists

161

Two hormones that have additive effects are called?

Synergists

162

When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called?

Permissive

163

Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called?

Integrative

164

The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is

Epinephrine

165

The consistent pattern of hormonal and physiological responses to stresses of different kinds is called the ?

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)