When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called?
These hormones act on neighboring cells without entering the bloodstream?
Local hormones, Paracrines, and Autocrines
These are lipids soluble hormones derived from cholesterol
Which of the following is a major eicosanoid?
Protaglandins, and Leukotrienes
What is a major difference in the action of a water soluble hormone versus a lipid soluble hormone?
The use of a second messenger
When one hormone opposing the action of another hormone it is called?
Which of the following is not a way a hormone secretion is regulated?
Signals from the peripheral nervous system
What controls the anterior pituitary gland?
Actions of the hypothalamic hormones
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates Cortisol production?
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates sex cell production?
The pars distalis and the pars tuberalis comprise of?
The anterior pituitary
How many hormones do the five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete?
Which type of anterior pituitary cell secretes human growth hormone?
Which hormones does the posterior pituitary produce?
Oxytocin and Antidiruetic hormones
The amount of ADH that is secreted varies with?
Blood osmotic pressure
Which if the following hormones opposes the actions of the parathyroid hormone?
Which of the following is NOT a means of synthesizing and secreting T3 and T4?
Hydrolysis of calcium
Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of which ions in the house?
Complete loss of the Aldosterone will lead to death due to?
Which of the following is NOT a glucocorticoid effect?
Increase in blood cell production
Which blood glucose lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cell?
Which hormone promotes metabolic rate?
Which hormone is stimulate by decreases in blood glucose?
Which of the below hormones is part of the body's long term response to stress?
Cortisol, hGH, and Thyroid hormones
The responses of the body to long term stress does NOT include which one of the following responses?
Increased heart rate
This is an amine hormone derived from seratonin
Release their secretions directly into body fluids
Hormones known as "Catecholamines" are?
Amino acid derivatives
Peptide hormones are?
Composed of amino acids
Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include?
Peptides, Steroids, Eicosanoids, and amino acid derivatives
Coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells, coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells, and the propagation of action potentials from one cell to the next at electrical synapses.
_______ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be ______ when released into the bloodstream, but _______ when released at synapses.
Hormones, and Neurotransmitters
The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the _______ system in many ways?
Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
Catecholamines, Peptide hormones, and Eicosanoids
Bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells
When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the?
Second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect?
Quantities of enzymes, Activities of enzymes, Synthesis of enzymes, and gating of ion channels
The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
a G protein
When a G protein becomes activiated and causes an activation of enzymes?
ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed
Which of the following substances acts as a second messenger?
Cells can respond to ______ hormones at a times
An activates G protein can trigger?
The opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane, The release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, A fall in cAMP levels, and A rise in cAMP levels
All target cells?
Have hormone receptors and respond to chemical signals
Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex?
Gene transcription is initiated
The most complex endocrine responses that integrates the nervous and endocrine system
Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
Blood level of an ion-like potassium, blood level of glucose, blood level of a hormone, and nervous stimuli
Regulatory factors that control secretion of anterior pituitary hormones are released by neurons at the _______ of the hypothalamus
Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
ADH and Oxytocin
The hypophyseal portal system
Has 2 capillary plexuses connected by short veins, Carries neurosecreations to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, and carries ADH and Oxytocin
The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a _______ organ?
The hypothalamus controls secretion by the anterior pituitary by
Secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system
Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?
Loss of ADH secretion
Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release
FSH, TSH, LH, and GH
The posterior pituitary gland secretes
The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
Which of the following is released due to sensory input and thus part of a neuroendocrine reflex?
The hormone oxytocin
Promotes uterine contractions, Is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands, and Rises during sexual arousal
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex is
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is
Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
The primary function of ADH is to
Decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?
TSH plays a key role in the _______ of thyroid hormones
Synthesis and release
If the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
The hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is
Which of the following is NOT and action of TSH
Inhibits T3 and T4 secretion
After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
The testes produce
The ovaries secrete ______ when stimulated by FSH
PRL is to ________ as ACTH is to ________.
Prolactin; and Corticotropin
Which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin?
Prostate, Ductus deferens, Mammary glands, and Uterus
Which of the following cooperate to prepare the mammary glands for milk secretion?
Prolactin, Estrogens, Progesterone, and Placental hormones
Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?
Increased oxygen consumption, heart rate, sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation and body temperature
Thyroid hormone contains the element
The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting the body temperature is ?
Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
The C cells of the thyroid gland produce
Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?
In the lumen of the thyroid follicle
A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
Increased levels of the hormone ______ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.
The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
Increases the level of calcium ions in the blood
Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doent
Build up bone
Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
Parathyroid glands, and parathyroid hormone
The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces
The zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex produces
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex produces
The adrenal medulla produces
A hormone that promotes glucose formation in the liver is?
A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
Cells of the adrenal cortex produce
Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of?
The adrenal medulla produces the hormones?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
Damage to cells of the zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex would result in?
Decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose
Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the?
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is?
When blood glucose levels fall....
Glucagon is released
The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
The F cells of the pancreatic islets produce
The exocrine portion of the pancreas produce
The pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans)
Contain four types of endocrine cells
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is ?
The targets for insulin is
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Adipocytes and Liver cells
Alpha cells are to ______ as beta cells are to _____
Glucagon and Insulin
When blood glucose levels rise
Insulin is released
Melatonin is produced by the
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
In very young children
Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
The term used to describe excess production of urine is
Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
Low blood glucose
In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus
Blood glucose levels are very high, excessive thirst is shown, glucose is present in the urine in large amounts, and a large excretion of urine occurs
If a diabetes patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting?
When hormones interact they can produce any of the following kinds of effects except?
Which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells?
Proper growth requires which of these hormones?
Thyroid hormone, Calcitriol, Insulin, and Growth hormone
The kidneys secrete
Renin, Erythropoietin, and Calcitriol
The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
Hormones can operate on the _____ level of organization.
Cellular, Tissue, Organ, and Organismic
In general, the effects of natriuretic peptides are ____ to those of the renin-angiotensin system
Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to which of the following?
Increased blood levels of renin, Elevated blood levels of angiotensin, and Increased blood levels of erythropoietin
The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaption syndrome (GAS) is
During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is
Mobilization of energy reserves
If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ______ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the?
During the resistance phase of the general adaption syndrome (GAS)
Lipid reserves are mobilized
The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
Decreased resistance to disease and infection
If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might that have on blood chemistry?
Both an increase of insulin and an increase of blood glucose
Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
Too little secretion of cortisol causes
The condition known as goiter can result from too
Little iodine in the diet
Inadequate iodine in the diet may leas to
Hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Goiter, and High blood levels of TSH
Cushing disease results from an excess of
Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?
Hormones may circulate freely or be bound to _______ proteins
The intracellular protein _____ binds calcium ions. This complex can than activate enzymes.
Receptors for ______, peptides hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.
Amino acid derivatives
Peripheral cells that respond to a hormone are called?
The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the ?
The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the ?
Hormones that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called?
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the ?
The thyroid gland is composed of many ______ that produce and store thyroid hormone
Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid?
The ______ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney?
The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the ?
The inner portion of the adrenal gland is the ?
The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones called?
Two hormones that have opposing effects are called?
Two hormones that have additive effects are called?
When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called?
Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called?
The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is
The consistent pattern of hormonal and physiological responses to stresses of different kinds is called the ?
General adaptation syndrome (GAS)