Exam 2 Study Guide
store and transmit information
When baby Jaleel was born, stimulation in his brain resulted in a massive overabundance of synapses. Neurons that were seldom stimulated began to lose their synapses. This proves is known as
Which of the following statements about the cerebral cortex is true?
it is sensitive to environmental influences for a longer period than any other part of the brain
The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is known as
________ greatly influences the organization of the cerebral cortex.
which of the following learning experiences should Cheryl, a caregiver, use to promote experience-expectant brain growth?
playing a game of peekaboo
Between birth and 2 years,
the organization of sleep and wakefulness changes substantially
Rachel is concerned that she night accidentally suffocate her baby if she shares a bed with him. What information can you share with Rachel about precautions taken in culture where cosleeping is widespread?
Parents and infants usually sleep on hard surfaces, such as firm mattresses, floor mats, or wooden planks
The US Department of Health and Human Services advise exclusive breastfeeding for the first time ________ and inclusion of breast milk in the baby’s diet until at least ______
6 months; 1 year
Jack and Jami are concerned that their chubby infant son Angus will become an overweight adult. Which of the following steps can they take to help prevent that?
Limit the time Angus spends in front of the TV.
Yolanda, age 2 is being raised in Texas by a single mother. while Yolanda’s mother works, she does to always have sufficient funds to purchase enough food for a healthy, active life. Yolanda is skinny and withdrawn. Yolanda suffers from
A researcher hangs a mobile over the crib of 4 month-old Anya. When the researcher attached Anya’s foot to the mobile with a long cord, Anya can, by kicking, make the mobile turn. The turning if the mobile is an example of a(n)
Of all motor skills, _______ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.
Piaget believed that infants and toddlers
“think” with their eyes and ears, and hands
- According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called __________ are organized ways of making sense of experience.
- During__________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.
Baby luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master
Recall is more challenging than recognition because it
involves remembering something that is not present
Research on infantile amnesia suggests that adults typically cannot rememberevents that happened during the first few years of life because
adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language
In the form of teaching known as scaffolding, as a child's competence increases, the adult
steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task.
research using the HOME checklist reveals that the extent to which parents _____ is especially important in facillitating toddler's intelligence test performance
talk to their infants and toddler
_____is/are much better indicators than an early mental test score of how children will do later.
Warm, responsive parenting that builds on toddlers current capacities
research showed that by age 3, children in Early Head Start
demonstrated gains in cognitive and language development
Which of the following paren-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?
reading and talking about picture books
According to Erikson, a healthy outcome during infancy depends on the
quality of caregiving
Twenty two year old daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, Missy. Daniel continually doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the tasks of _____ and _____ during infancy and childhood
John Bowlby retained the psychoanalytic idea that
quality of attachment to the caregiver has profound implications for the child's capcity to form trusting relationships
According to Bowlby,the ____ becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships.
internal working model
In the Strange Situation, Olivia seems unresponsive to her mother when she is present. When her mother leaves, Olivia is not distressed. She reacts to the stranger in much the same way. Olivia is demonstrating characteristics of _______ attachment
_______ is best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance ."
Compared with securely attached infants, avoidant babies tend to receive _____ care.
Parents who discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance, regardless of whether their experiences were positive or negative, tend to have ______ infants
Research on childcare in infancy has found that
the relationship between child care and emotional well-being depends on both family and child care experiences
_____ increases the chance of sibling conflict
Lack of parental involvement
Two year old Ann marie tells her mom, "I a good girl." This statement demonstrates that Annmarie is beginning to develop
a categorical self
Fibers linking ____ to the _____ grow and myelinate from birth through the preschool years, contributing to dramatic gains in motor coordination
cerebellum; cerebral cortex
The ______, located a the base of the brain, plays a critical role be lreleasing two hormones that induce growth.
In the United States, ______ is/are the leding cause of death among children more than 1 year old
motor vehicle collisons
Which of the following statements about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood is true?
Girls are ahead of boys in fine motor skills
Piaget acknowledged that _____ is our most flexible means of mental representation
Preschoolers who ___ are seen as more socially competent by their teachers
spend more time at sociodramatic play
According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is
Conservation refers to the
idea that certain physical chrateristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
In Pauls preschool classroom, children are encouraged to choose activities from a rich variety of materials designed to promote exploration. this preschool emphasizes the Piagetian principle of
Three year old Maya is asked to describe what happens at preschool. This task requires Maya to use
Dr. Wizda is asessing the home life of a preschool child using the home obervasion of measurent of the environment(HOME). She observes the parent converse with the child four times during the visit. On which scale should Dr. Wizda record this observation?
Preschool viewing of educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with
getting higher grades, reading more books,and placing more value on acheivement in high school
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is
initiative versus guilt
According to Erikson, preschoolers exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they
are threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults
Adults can avoid promoting self defeating reactions in children by
adjusting their expectations to children's capabilities
Research on emotional understanding shows that preschoolers
focus on the most obvious aspect of an emotional situation to the neglect of other relevant information
The more parents _____, the more "emotion words" children use and the better developed their emotional understanding
label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers
Among Western children, when guilt occurs in apprpriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is related to
Which of the following is an example of a direct parental influence on children's peer sociability?
Maxine arranges for her 4 year old to play with his friend at the park
Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is
externally controlled by adults
truly moral individuals
have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct
according to Freud, children
obey the superego to avoid guilt
Research reveals that inductive discipline
helps children notice others' feelings and points out the effects of children's misbehavior on others
Discipline that relies on _____ makes children so anxious and frightened that they cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do
withdrawal of love
Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all characteristics
that increase a child's willingness to imitate a model's behavior
A few minutes in time out can be enough to change behavior and also allows parents
time to cool off
Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophie because "she lies". This is an example of ______ aggresion
Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence
increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggresive behaviors in viewers
In Michaela's preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers,while the boys play with blocks and legos. This is an example o
Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Mark's repsonse indicate an
androngynous gender identity
rarely listen to the child's point of view
Which of the following statements about the authoritative child rearing style is true?
Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give resons for their expectations, and use teaching moments to promote the child's self regulation
Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self esteem. When frustrated, bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are mostly likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles
LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH INDICATES THAT AUTHORITATIVE CHILD REARING
promotes maturity and adjustment in children of diverse temperaments
_____ and _____ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.
preschool; school-aged children