Exam 2 Study Guide

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1

Neurons

store and transmit information

2

When baby Jaleel was born, stimulation in his brain resulted in a massive overabundance of synapses. Neurons that were seldom stimulated began to lose their synapses. This proves is known as

synaptic pruning

3

Which of the following statements about the cerebral cortex is true?

it is sensitive to environmental influences for a longer period than any other part of the brain

4

The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is known as

lateralization

5

________ greatly influences the organization of the cerebral cortex.

early experience

6

which of the following learning experiences should Cheryl, a caregiver, use to promote experience-expectant brain growth?

playing a game of peekaboo

7

Between birth and 2 years,

the organization of sleep and wakefulness changes substantially

8

Rachel is concerned that she night accidentally suffocate her baby if she shares a bed with him. What information can you share with Rachel about precautions taken in culture where cosleeping is widespread?

Parents and infants usually sleep on hard surfaces, such as firm mattresses, floor mats, or wooden planks

9

The US Department of Health and Human Services advise exclusive breastfeeding for the first time ________ and inclusion of breast milk in the baby’s diet until at least ______

6 months; 1 year

10

Jack and Jami are concerned that their chubby infant son Angus will become an overweight adult. Which of the following steps can they take to help prevent that?

Limit the time Angus spends in front of the TV.

11

Yolanda, age 2 is being raised in Texas by a single mother. while Yolanda’s mother works, she does to always have sufficient funds to purchase enough food for a healthy, active life. Yolanda is skinny and withdrawn. Yolanda suffers from

food insecurity

12

A researcher hangs a mobile over the crib of 4 month-old Anya. When the researcher attached Anya’s foot to the mobile with a long cord, Anya can, by kicking, make the mobile turn. The turning if the mobile is an example of a(n)

reinforcer

13

Of all motor skills, _______ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.

reaching

14

Piaget believed that infants and toddlers

“think” with their eyes and ears, and hands

15
  1. According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called __________ are organized ways of making sense of experience.

schemes

16
  1. During__________, children use their current schemes to interpret the external world, whereas in __________, children create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.

assimilation; accommodation

17

Baby luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master

object permanence

18

Recall is more challenging than recognition because it

involves remembering something that is not present

19

Research on infantile amnesia suggests that adults typically cannot rememberevents that happened during the first few years of life because

adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language

20

In the form of teaching known as scaffolding, as a child's competence increases, the adult

steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task.

21

research using the HOME checklist reveals that the extent to which parents _____ is especially important in facillitating toddler's intelligence test performance

talk to their infants and toddler

22

_____is/are much better indicators than an early mental test score of how children will do later.

Warm, responsive parenting that builds on toddlers current capacities

23

research showed that by age 3, children in Early Head Start

demonstrated gains in cognitive and language development

24

Which of the following paren-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?

reading and talking about picture books

25

According to Erikson, a healthy outcome during infancy depends on the

quality of caregiving

26

Twenty two year old daniel is overly dependent on his girlfriend, Missy. Daniel continually doubts his ability to meet new challenges. Daniel may not have fully mastered the tasks of _____ and _____ during infancy and childhood

trust;autonomy

27

John Bowlby retained the psychoanalytic idea that

quality of attachment to the caregiver has profound implications for the child's capcity to form trusting relationships

28

According to Bowlby,the ____ becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships.

internal working model

29

In the Strange Situation, Olivia seems unresponsive to her mother when she is present. When her mother leaves, Olivia is not distressed. She reacts to the stranger in much the same way. Olivia is demonstrating characteristics of _______ attachment

avoidant

30

_______ is best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance ."

Interactional synchrony


31

Compared with securely attached infants, avoidant babies tend to receive _____ care.

overstimulating, intrusive

32

Parents who discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance, regardless of whether their experiences were positive or negative, tend to have ______ infants

securely attached


33

Research on childcare in infancy has found that

the relationship between child care and emotional well-being depends on both family and child care experiences

34

_____ increases the chance of sibling conflict

Lack of parental involvement


35

Two year old Ann marie tells her mom, "I a good girl." This statement demonstrates that Annmarie is beginning to develop

a categorical self

36

Fibers linking ____ to the _____ grow and myelinate from birth through the preschool years, contributing to dramatic gains in motor coordination

cerebellum; cerebral cortex

37

The ______, located a the base of the brain, plays a critical role be lreleasing two hormones that induce growth.

pituitary gland

38

In the United States, ______ is/are the leding cause of death among children more than 1 year old

motor vehicle collisons

39

Which of the following statements about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood is true?

Girls are ahead of boys in fine motor skills

40

Piaget acknowledged that _____ is our most flexible means of mental representation

language

41

Preschoolers who ___ are seen as more socially competent by their teachers

spend more time at sociodramatic play

42

According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is

egocentrism

43

Conservation refers to the

idea that certain physical chrateristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes

44

In Pauls preschool classroom, children are encouraged to choose activities from a rich variety of materials designed to promote exploration. this preschool emphasizes the Piagetian principle of

discovery learning

45

Three year old Maya is asked to describe what happens at preschool. This task requires Maya to use

scripts

46

Dr. Wizda is asessing the home life of a preschool child using the home obervasion of measurent of the environment(HOME). She observes the parent converse with the child four times during the visit. On which scale should Dr. Wizda record this observation?

language stimulation


47

Preschool viewing of educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with

getting higher grades, reading more books,and placing more value on acheivement in high school

48

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is

initiative versus guilt


49

According to Erikson, preschoolers exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they

are threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults

50

Adults can avoid promoting self defeating reactions in children by

adjusting their expectations to children's capabilities

51

Research on emotional understanding shows that preschoolers

focus on the most obvious aspect of an emotional situation to the neglect of other relevant information

52

The more parents _____, the more "emotion words" children use and the better developed their emotional understanding

label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers

53

Among Western children, when guilt occurs in apprpriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is related to

good adjustment

54

Which of the following is an example of a direct parental influence on children's peer sociability?

Maxine arranges for her 4 year old to play with his friend at the park

55

Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is

externally controlled by adults

56

truly moral individuals

have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct

57

according to Freud, children

obey the superego to avoid guilt

58

Research reveals that inductive discipline

helps children notice others' feelings and points out the effects of children's misbehavior on others

59

Discipline that relies on _____ makes children so anxious and frightened that they cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do

withdrawal of love

60

Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all characteristics

that increase a child's willingness to imitate a model's behavior

61

A few minutes in time out can be enough to change behavior and also allows parents

time to cool off

62

Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophie because "she lies". This is an example of ______ aggresion

relational

63

Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence

increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggresive behaviors in viewers

64

In Michaela's preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers,while the boys play with blocks and legos. This is an example o

gender typing

65

Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Mark's repsonse indicate an

androngynous gender identity

66

Authoritarian parents

rarely listen to the child's point of view

67

Which of the following statements about the authoritative child rearing style is true?

Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give resons for their expectations, and use teaching moments to promote the child's self regulation

68

Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self esteem. When frustrated, bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are mostly likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles

authoritarian

69

LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH INDICATES THAT AUTHORITATIVE CHILD REARING

promotes maturity and adjustment in children of diverse temperaments

70

_____ and _____ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.

preschool; school-aged children