Nutrition Final Flashcards

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Chapter 2

1. Which of the following is true with regard to a healthy diet?

a. A healthy diet emphasizes nutrient dense over energy dense foods.

b. A healthy diet provides calories and nutrients in amounts necessary to promote good health.

c. A healthy diet is characterized by adequacy, balance, variety, and moderation.

d. All of the above



Chapter 2

2. Emphasizing nutrient dense foods and reducing intake of energy dense foods while meeting overall energy needs typically results in:

a. less dietary fiber and reduced overall volume of food intake

b. increased intake of dietary fat and risk of overweight and obesity

c. greater likelihood of achieving recommended intake of essential nutrients

d. dietary inadequacies that may contribute to nutrient deficiencies



Chapter 2

3. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) are characterized by all the following EXCEPT:

A. they are updated every two years

b. they are science based guidelines to promote health and reduce risk of chronic disease

c. they stress consumption of nutrient dense foods

d. they stress balancing calories for a healthy weight



Chapter 2

4. The DGAs recommend that sodium intake should:

a. be limited to 3,000 milligrams/day for all Americans older than 2 years

b. be restricted to 1,500 milligrams/day for individuals at risk of high blood pressure

c. be balanced with overall calories intake to prevent fluid retention

d. be limited only if older than 30 years



Chapter 2

5. All of the following are true regarding the USDA MyPlate food guide EXCEPT:

a. it replaced the Food Guide Pyramid in 2011

b. it has an online an online website the help individualize recommendations

c. it is designed to depict food choices across food groups at meals

d. it is designed specifically for use by children rather than adults



Chapter 2

6. The World Heath Organization's dietary guidelines:

a. reinforce recommendations from other countries around the world

b. focus exclusively on malnutrition in the form of nutrient deficiency disease

c. contradict the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

d. recommend complete avoidance of sugar and salt



Chapter 2

7. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 requires all of the following except

a. health claims must be approved by the FDA before use on food labels

b. listing of ingredients in a food product on the label

c. using a standardized Nutrition Facts Panel on food products

d. warning if a food product contains excessive amounts of sugar of sodium



Chapter 2

8. Percent daily value (%DV) on processed food packages is

a. developed specifically for use on food labels

b. based on an average 1,800 calorie intake

c. the level of nutrients that should not be exceeded

d. established by food manufactures



Chapter 2

9. On a nutrition label, the list of ingredients

a. is in alphabetical order

b. begins with the ingredient that comprises the highest proportion of the product's weight

c. beings with the ingredient with the highest caloric density

d. begins with any potential ingredient that might cause an allergic reaction



Chapter 2

10. Currently, health claims that can appear on food labels

a. can guarantee that consumption of a food with reduce risk of specific diseases

b. have been approved by the FDA

c. can appear on any processed food even if high in saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium

d. are based exclusively on research and evidence provided by the food manufacturer



Chapter 15

1. A calorie is defined as

a. the energy required to raise 1 mg of water 1 degrees Celsius

b. the energy required to raise 1 g of water 1 degrees Celsius

c. a molecule that provides energy to cells

d. a byproduct of carbohydrate and fat metabolism



Chapter 15

2. Current evidence suggests that a primary cause of adverse health effects related to obesity is

a. excess body fat in the hip and thigh area

b. long term negative energy balance

c. low grade chronic inflammation throughout the body

d. changes in the acid base balance of the blood



Chapter 15

3. Satiation can be defined as

a. the sense or feeling of fullness while eating that leads to termination of the meal

b. the effect of a meal on level of hunger and desire to eat after or between meals

c. the saturation of adipose tissue with the hormone ghrelin

d. the appetite for foods high in fat, particularly saturated fat



Chapter 15

4. All of the following are TRUE with regard to the hormone leptin EXCEPT

a. it is primarily produced by adipose tissue

b. its circulating concentration is closely associated with total body fat

c. increased levels of leptin in the blood act in the brain to suppress hunger

d. it functions primarily in short-term energy balance



Chapter 15

5. The primary contributor to an individuals's total energy expenditure is

a. basal metabolism

b. thermic effect of food

c. activity energy expenditure

d. meal timing and composition



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6. The most variable component of an individuals's total energy expenditure is
a. basal metabolism
b. thermic effect of food
c. activity energy expenditure
d. meal timing and composition



Chapter 15

7.The thermic effect of food is generally equivalent to ____ of the energy content food ingested.

a. 10%

b. 15%

c. 20%

d. 25%

e. 30%



Chapter 15

8. All of the following are TRUE with regard to body mass index (BMI), EXCEPT

a. that is is a measure of an adult's weight in relation to his or her height

b. that is provides an indirect measure of body fat

c. that there is an increased risk of obesity-related diseases and conditions with increasing BMI

d. measurement requires the use of skin fold calipers or other body composition assessment tools

e. that it may overestimate body fat in athletes and highly trained individuals



Chapter 15

9. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 would classify a person as

a. underweight

b. normal weight

c. overweight

d. obese

e. a candidate for weight loss surgery



Chapter 15

10. Waist circumference can be an indication of "risky" abnormal obesity. A waist circumference of ____ inches for a man would indicate excess abdominal fat and increased health risk.

a. 27

b. 32

c. 37

d. 42



Chapter 15

11. All of the following are TRUE with regard to weight loss (bariatric) surgery EXCEPT

a. it dramatically reduces food intake and limits stomach capacity

b. it does not have any effect of satiety

c. it is reserved for individuals with BMIs of at least 40 or at least 35 with additional risk factors

d. it produces significant weight loss in obese patients



Chapter 16

1. The four types of exercise specifically recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine include all of the following EXCEPT

a. calisthenics

b. cardiorespiratory

c. flexibility

d. neuromotor

e. resistance



Chapter 16

2. All of the following are TRUE with regard to ATP, EXCEPT that it

a. is often referred to as the energy currency of cells

b. stores energy in the bonds of its three phosphate groups

c. can be produced both aerobically and anaerobically

d. cannot be produced without the presence of oxygen

e. is the abbreviation for the chemical compound adenosine triphosphate



Chapter 16

3. The aerobic energy system occurs in what part of the cell?

a. cellular membrane

b. cytosol

c. mitochondria

d. nucleus

e. ribosome



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4. Anaerobic energy systems

a. provide low energy for low intensity exercise

b. provide energy for short, intense exertion

c. provide unlimited energy

d. require oxygen

e. utilize fatty acids as primary fuel source



Chapter 16

5. More carbohydrate is used as fuel when someone is

a. walking

b. jogging

c. running

d. sprinting



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6. All of the following are TRUE with regard to carbohydrate loading, EXCEPT that it

a. can increase time to exhaustion during intense exercise by 90 minutes or more

b. helps prevent depletion of glycogen during activities of long duration

c. is intended to increase glycogen stored in muscle

d. promotes unlimited glycogen stores



Chapter 16

7. Female endurance athletes are at a higher risk for being deficient in which of the following nutrients

a. biotin

b. chromium

c. iron

d. sodium

e. zinc



Chapter 16

8. Female athletes who restrict energy intake and experience menstrual dysfunction are at higher risk for the long term complication of

a. high blood pressure

b. neural tube defects

c. osteoporosis

d. type 2 diabetes



Chapter 16

9. What would you tell a friend who inquires if amino acids and protein supplements will help build muscle?

a. amino acids and protein powders alone do not increase muscle mass

b. protein intake has to be combined with exercise and sufficient calorie intake to increase muscle mass

c. excess protein intake contributes to energy needs or may be stored as fat

d. it is likely he or she is already consuming sufficient protein

e. all of the above



Chapter 16

10. All of the following are TRUE with regard to hydration for athletes EXCEPT

a. it is impossible to consume too much water -- the more the better

b. you should begin intense activities fully hydrated

c. urine colors can be an indication of hydration status

d. comparing body weight before and after exercise is a good indication of hydration status

e. sports drinks may help hydrate and prevent hyponatremia during and following prolonged exercise



Chapter 16

11. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activities Guidelines, adults gain substantial health benefits from ___ a week of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity or ____ a week of vigorous activity.

a. 2hrs, 1 hr

b. 2.5 hrs, 1 hr and 15 min

c. 3 hrs, 2 hrs

d. 4.5 hrs, 2 hrs and 30 min

e. 5 hrs, 3 hrs



Chapter 17

1. Physiological changes associated with pregnancy include all of the following EXCEPT

a. decreased gastrointestinal motility

b. decreased breathing rate

c. increased blood volume

d. increased calcium absorption

e. increased cardiac output



Chapter 17

2. During pregnancy, there is a maternal adaptation to utilize ___ as primary fuel.

a. fat

b. glucose

c. glycogen

d. protein



Chapter 17

3. Marilyn weight 140 pounds prior to pregnancy and her BMI was 22. According to healthy weight gain recommendations, she should anticipate weighing ____ by the end of her pregnancy.

a. 150 to 160 pounds

b. 155 to 165 pounds

c. 160 to 170 pounds

d. 165 to 175 pounds

e. 170 to 180 pounds



Chapter 17

4. Babies that are considered small for gestational age are defined as having a birth weight that is

a. between 1 and 3 pounds

b. less than 10% of maternal weight gain

c. less than the 10th percentile of gestational age

d. less than 50th percentile of gestational age

e. lower than 50% of average U.S. birth weight



Chapter 17

5. Typically, calorie needs during the first trimester of pregnancy

a. do not increase over pre pregnancy requirements

b. increase by 30% over pre pregnancy requirements

c. increase by 340 calories over pre pregnancy requirements

d. increase by 450 calories over pre pregnancy requirements

e. are the highest compared with other trimesters because of rapid fetal development



Chapter 17

6. Which of the following about folate is NOT correct?

a. adequate intake before and during pregnancy decreases the incidence of neural tube defects

b. between the ages of 15 and 45 years, all women should consume 400 micrograms through folate-rich foods or take folic-acid supplements

c. during pregnancy, the daily recommended intake is 600 micrograms

d. needs in pregnancy can be met without supplementation through diet and consumption of folate-rich foods

e. supplementation is most critical during the second trimester when folate-related birth defects develop



Chapter 17

7. The only nutrient for which supplementation during pregnancy is universally recommended is

a. calcium

b. fluoride

c. iron

d. vitamin B12

e. vitamin c



Chapter 17

8. Justin weighed 7 pounds, 3 ounces at birth and was 20 inches in length. What is his anticipated weight and height after 1 yr?

a. 14 pounds, 6 ounces and 30 inches

b. 14 pounds, 6 ounces and 40 inches

c. 21 pounds, 9 ounces and 30 inches

d. 21 pounds, 9 ounces and 40 inches



Chapter 17

9. The benefits of breastfeeding include

a. reduced incidences of diarrhea and vomiting in infants

b. reduced incidence of childhood diabetes and leukemia

c. enhanced infant oral motor development and digestion

d. increased mother-infant bonding

e. all of the above



Chapter 17

10. Nutritional recommendations for infants include all of the following EXCEPT

a. exclusive breastfeeding until at least 6 months of age

b. vitamin B12 supplementation for all breastfed babies

c. vitamin D supplementation for breathed babies after the first few days of life

d. iron supplementation if exclusively breastfed after four months

e. solid food s can be introduced to complement breast milk after 6 months



Chapter 18

1. School- aged children 6 to 11 yrs old

a. experience the greatest increases in height and weight during childhood and adolescence

b. grow at a steady pace with occasional growth spurts

c. are all quite similar in height and body weight

d. would be considered at risk of obesity with a BMI-for-age above the 50th percentile

e. have the same nutritional requirements as adolescents



Chapter 18

2. Studies suggest that children who consume the most total energy, saturated fat, and sodium

a. determine their own serving sizes by serving themselves

b. eat most of their meals with their family

c. eat most of their meals at home

d. eat most of their meals away from home

e. watch the least amount of television



Chapter 18

3. All of the following reflect updates in the National School Lunch Program, EXCEPT

a. emphasis on whole grains over refined grains

b. increased offerings of vegetables and fruits

c. reduced saturated and trans fat

d. restriction of total fat to less than 20% of total calories

e. reduced sodium content



Chapter 18

4. The Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Range for dietary fat for children aged 1 to 3 yrs is ____ of total calories.

a. 20 to 35%

b. 20 to 40%

c. 25 to 40%

d. 30 to 40%

e. 35 to 50%



Chapter 18

5. for children offers guidance toward healthy food choices as well as age-appropriate serving sizes. An appropriate serving size of mashed potatoes for a 5 yr old would be

a. 5 teaspoons

b. 5 tablespoons

c. 1/4 cup

d. 1/2 cup



Chapter 18

6. To encourage healthy eating habits in children, which of the following strategies is NOT recommended for parents or caregivers?

a. deny dessert or special treats if a child does not eat all foods offered at a meal

b. repeatedly offer food even if the child does not initially accept or try a food

c. involve children in shopping for and preparing food

d. model positive food choices and attitudes toward nutrition

e. determine which foods are offered and when they are offered



Chapter 18

7. All of the following are true in regards to food jags EXCEPT that they

a. are generally outgrown

b. require immediate parental intervention to stop these behaviors

c. considered developmentally normal

d. can represent a child seeking more independence and control

e. are habits, rituals, or particular ways of eating



Chapter 18

8. All of the following have been identified as potential nutrients of concern during childhood EXCEPT

a. calcium

b. dietary fiber

c. iron

d. omega-6 fatty acids

e. vitamin D



Chapter 18

9. To help reduce risk of obesity, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that "screen time", whether watching television, playing electronic games, or using the computer, should be

a. allowed only on the weekends

b. minimized to no more than 3 hours per week

c. restricted to less than 1 hour per day

d. limited to one or two hours per day

e. limited to 3 or 4 hours per day



Chapter 18

10. Food intolerances are reproducible, adverse reactions to food that

a. are life threatening

b. involve the immune system

c. do not involve the immune system

d. are the same as food allergies



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11. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics provides tips to help families avoid foods that elicit allergic reactions including

a. read food labels ad ingredient listings carefully

b. educate family members, caregivers, and teachers about food allergies and allergens

c. teach young children about their allergies at a young age

d. consult a registered dietician nutritionist to develop a healthy eating plan that avoids allergens

e. all of the answers are correct