Chapter 3 Psychology Study Guide Flashcards


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1

the part of the brain below the back of the cerebrum. It regulates balance, posture, movement, and muscle coordination

cerebellum

2

a large bundle of nerve fibers that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In the lateral section, it looks a bit like a "C" on its side.

Corpus Callosum

3

the top, front regions of each of the cerebral hemispheres. They are used for reasoning, emotions, judgement, and voluntary movement

frontal lobe

4

the lowest section of the brainstem (at the top end of the spinal cord); it controls automatic functions including heartbeat, breathing, etc.

Medulla Oblongata

5

Stimulates groups of female reproductive organs, helps prepare the body for pregnancy

progesterone

6

the region at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that contains the centers of vision and reading ability (located at the back of the head

Occipital Lobe

7

the middle lobe of each cerebral hemisphere between the frontal and occipital lobes; it contains important sensory centers (located at the upper rear of the head)

Parietal Lobe

8

a gland attached to the base of the brain (located between the Pons and the Corpus Callosum) that secretes hormones

Pituitary Gland

9

the part of the brainstem that joins the hemispheres of the cerebellum and connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum. It is located just above the Medulla Oblongata.

Pons

10

a thick bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the brain to the hip area, running through the spine (vertebrae)

Spinal Cord

11

Regulates growth of muscles, bones, and glands

growth hormone

12

the region at the lower side of each cerebral hemisphere; contains centers of hearing and memory (located at the sides of the head)

Temporal Lobe

13

part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

14

The part of a neuron that carries messages away from a cell body.

axon

15

The right and left sides of the brain refers to this

cerebral cortex

16

part of the peripheral nervous system that is activated by touch and pain

somatic nervous system

17

How messages are transmitted from one neuron to another

axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrites of other neuron

18

Hormone in the production of milk in nursing women

prolactin

19

A behavior that is regulated by the autonomic nervous system

digesting food

20

What is the general purpose of kinship studies? (short answer)

to find out if a particular trait is influenced more by heredity or by environment to study the roles that heredity and environment play in determining a trait

21

Stimulates labor in pregnant women, induce labor when overdue

oxytocin

22

largest part of the brain, controlling functions such as thinking and memory

cerebrum

23

What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying identical twins to determine the roles of heredity and environment on psychological traits? (essay)

An advantage to studying identical twins is that they have the same genetic makeup, so any differences between the two are likely to be the result of the environment. A disadvantage of studying identical twins is that they are often treated similarly and are brought up in the same environment. As a result, it is often difficult for scientists to determine whether similarities between the twins are due to heredity or the environment.

24

Affects body metabolism

thyroxin

25

Basic building blocks of heredity

genes

26

The section of the brain that is involved in vital functions such as breathing

hindbrain

27

influences development of sex organs; kind of a steroid with medical and ethical implications

testosterone

28

Substances in the body that stimulate growth and many kinds of reactions

hormones

29

Psychological traits in humans are influenced by

genes and environment

30

Identify the purpose of the peripheral nervous system and its two main divisions (short answer)

the peripheral nervous system transmits messages between the central nervous system and all parts of the body. It is divided into the somatic nervous system, which deals with actions that a person controls, and the autonomic nervous system, which deals with actions that people do not control, such as breathing.

31

Fosters the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in females

estrogen

32

Which is the "nature" approach to human psychology

Intelligence is determined largely by genetics.

33

The endocrine system consists of this

glands that excrete hormones

34

The gland that helps people deal with stressful situations

adrenal glands

35

An imaging technique used to study the brain

CAT scan

36

Why is the cerebral cortex considered the part of the brain that makes people uniquely human? (short answer)

The part of the brain that deals with thinking, memory, language, emotions, complex motor functions, and perceptions

37

Why does a spinal cord injury often results in paralysis? (essay)

The spinal cord transmits messages between the brain and the muscles. If the connection is damaged, the spinal cord is unable to transmit the messages. As a result, the brain cannot tell the body to more.