Chapter 3 Psychology Study Guide Flashcards
the part of the brain below the back of the cerebrum. It regulates balance, posture, movement, and muscle coordination
a large bundle of nerve fibers that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In the lateral section, it looks a bit like a "C" on its side.
the top, front regions of each of the cerebral hemispheres. They are used for reasoning, emotions, judgement, and voluntary movement
the lowest section of the brainstem (at the top end of the spinal cord); it controls automatic functions including heartbeat, breathing, etc.
Stimulates groups of female reproductive organs, helps prepare the body for pregnancy
the region at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that contains the centers of vision and reading ability (located at the back of the head
the middle lobe of each cerebral hemisphere between the frontal and occipital lobes; it contains important sensory centers (located at the upper rear of the head)
a gland attached to the base of the brain (located between the Pons and the Corpus Callosum) that secretes hormones
the part of the brainstem that joins the hemispheres of the cerebellum and connects the cerebrum with the cerebellum. It is located just above the Medulla Oblongata.
a thick bundle of nerve fibers that runs from the base of the brain to the hip area, running through the spine (vertebrae)
Regulates growth of muscles, bones, and glands
the region at the lower side of each cerebral hemisphere; contains centers of hearing and memory (located at the sides of the head)
part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
The part of a neuron that carries messages away from a cell body.
The right and left sides of the brain refers to this
part of the peripheral nervous system that is activated by touch and pain
somatic nervous system
How messages are transmitted from one neuron to another
axon terminal of one neuron to the dendrites of other neuron
Hormone in the production of milk in nursing women
A behavior that is regulated by the autonomic nervous system
What is the general purpose of kinship studies? (short answer)
to find out if a particular trait is influenced more by heredity or by environment to study the roles that heredity and environment play in determining a trait
Stimulates labor in pregnant women, induce labor when overdue
largest part of the brain, controlling functions such as thinking and memory
What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying identical twins to determine the roles of heredity and environment on psychological traits? (essay)
An advantage to studying identical twins is that they have the same genetic makeup, so any differences between the two are likely to be the result of the environment. A disadvantage of studying identical twins is that they are often treated similarly and are brought up in the same environment. As a result, it is often difficult for scientists to determine whether similarities between the twins are due to heredity or the environment.
Affects body metabolism
Basic building blocks of heredity
The section of the brain that is involved in vital functions such as breathing
influences development of sex organs; kind of a steroid with medical and ethical implications
Substances in the body that stimulate growth and many kinds of reactions
Psychological traits in humans are influenced by
genes and environment
Identify the purpose of the peripheral nervous system and its two main divisions (short answer)
the peripheral nervous system transmits messages between the central nervous system and all parts of the body. It is divided into the somatic nervous system, which deals with actions that a person controls, and the autonomic nervous system, which deals with actions that people do not control, such as breathing.
Fosters the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in females
Which is the "nature" approach to human psychology
Intelligence is determined largely by genetics.
The endocrine system consists of this
glands that excrete hormones
The gland that helps people deal with stressful situations
An imaging technique used to study the brain
Why is the cerebral cortex considered the part of the brain that makes people uniquely human? (short answer)
The part of the brain that deals with thinking, memory, language, emotions, complex motor functions, and perceptions
Why does a spinal cord injury often results in paralysis? (essay)
The spinal cord transmits messages between the brain and the muscles. If the connection is damaged, the spinal cord is unable to transmit the messages. As a result, the brain cannot tell the body to more.