Chapter 22 (Exam 5) Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.
C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.
D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

2

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
A) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells
B) parietal cells and glial cells
C) serous cells and mucous cells
D) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

C) serous cells and mucous cells

3

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
B) is the first site where absorption takes place
C) is the only place where fats are completely digested
D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

4

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
A) chief cells
B) parietal cells
C) serous cells
D) mucous neck cells

B) parietal cells

5

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients
C) at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time
D) when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

6

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
A) starches and complex carbohydrates
B) protein and peptide fragments
C) simple carbohydrates and alcohols
D) fatty acids

B) protein and peptide fragments

7

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
A) gastrin
B) amylase
C) cholecystokinin
D) trypsin

B) amylase

8

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
A) diffusion
B) active transport
C) hydrolysis
D) denatured

C) hydrolysis

9

Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
A) mucin
B) pepsinogen
C) hydrochloric acid
D) rennin

C) hydrochloric acid

10

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
A) cephalic
B) gastric
C) intestinal
D) enterogastric

D) enterogastric

11

Chief cells ________.
A) occur in the intestine
B) produce HCl
C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands
D) produce mucin

C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

12

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
A) liver
B) spleen
C) pancreas
D) stomach

A) liver

13

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
A) duodenum
B) ileum
C) jejunum
D) pyloric sphincter

B) ileum

14

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) proteins
D) starches

A) lipids

15

Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.
A) omenta
B) peritoneum
C) mesentery
D) round ligament

D) round ligament

16

________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
A) Distension
B) Carbohydrates
C) Peptides
D) Low acidity

B) Carbohydrates

17

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
C) secrete buffers in order to keep the pH of the digestive tract close to neutral
D) provide protection against invading bacteria and other disease-causing organisms that enter the digestive tract in food

B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

18

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
A) somatic neurons in the spinal cord
B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
C) the rubrospinal tracts
D) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

19

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) parietal cells
B) zymogenic cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) enteroendocrine cells

A) parietal cells

20

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
A) dextrinase
B) amylase
C) trypsin
D) lipase

C) trypsin

21

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
A) tongue
B) esophagus
C) nasal cavity
D) salivary glands

A) tongue

22

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
A) mucosa
B) submucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) serosa

B) submucosa

23

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
A) HCl
B) pepsinogen
C) intrinsic factor
D) gastric lipase

C) intrinsic factor

24

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
A) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
D) Gastric secretion is enhanced by very low pH (below a pH of 2).

C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

25

Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
A) Enterogastrone is a hormone that helps increase gastric motility.
B) Pepsin is an enzyme produced by the stomach for the purpose of starch digestion.
C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
D) All commonly ingested substances are significantly absorbed by the mucosa of the stomach.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex

26

Select the correct statement about absorption.
A) Eighty percent of ingested materials have been absorbed by the end of the large intestine.
B) Carbohydrates diffuse across the villus epithelium and are then actively transported into blood capillaries.
C) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
D) Amino acid transport is linked to chloride transport.

C) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

27

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
A) the pancreas
B) the buccal glands
C) the thyroid gland
D) the parotid glands

A) the pancreas

28

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.
A) acidosis
B) ketosis
C) alkalosis
D) dysphagia

C) alkalosis

29

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
A) hepatic portal vein
B) inferior vena cava
C) superior mesenteric artery
D) celiac artery

B) inferior vena cava

30

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
A) D
B) A
C) M
D) E

B) A

31
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Mucosa

A

32
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Duodenal glands found here

B

33
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Smooth muscle layer.

C

34
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Serosa.

D

35
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Area of the lamina propria

A

36
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Continuation of the mesentery

D

37
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Absorptive cells that line the intestinal tract

B

38
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Cell type specialized to secrete mucus into the lumen of the intestinal tract.

D

39
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Wide lymph capillary located in the villus.

C

40
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Paneth cells are found here.

E

41

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) bile
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
D) gastric juice

A) bile

42

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
A) does not contain villi
B) exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli
C) is longer than the small intestine
D) has haustra

C) is longer than the small intestine

43

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
A) simple diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
D) bulk flow

C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

44

Paneth cells ________.
A) are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum
B) are absorptive cells in the small intestine
C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
D) are located next to the lacteal in a villus

C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

45

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
A) a significant amount of enzyme secretion by the intestinal mucosa
B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
C) secretions from the spleen that contain all enzymes necessary for complete digestion
D) bile salts that help emulsify carbohydrates so that they can be easily digested by enzymatic action

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

46

Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
A) Chlorine ion absorption is coupled to glucose and amino acid transport.
B) Potassium moves across the epithelium by active transport.
C) If vitamin B is not present, calcium is not absorbed.
D) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.

D) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum

47

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
B) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digestive upset.
C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
D) The acid secretions from the stomach would be sufficient to digest this food.

C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

48

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
A) gastrin
B) secretin
C) cholecystokinin CCK
D) gastric inhibitor peptide

C) cholecystokinin CCK

49

Which of these is not a component of saliva?
A) lysozyme
B) a cyanide compound
C) defensins
D) nitric oxide

D) nitric oxide

50

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
B) in the walls of the tract organs
C) in the pons and medulla
D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage

B) in the walls of the tract organs