Chapter 28 The Female Reproductive System

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1

The presence of a fluid-filled antrum is first evident in _____ follicles

tertiary

2

The production of the female haploid gamete is called ______

oogenesis

3

Place the phases of the menstrual cycle

menstrual phase

proliferative phase

secretory phase

premenstrual phase

4

Identify the structures responsible for hormonal control of the sexual cycle

hypothalamus

ovaries

pituitary gland

5

List, in order, the phases of the ovarian cycle

follicular phase

ovulation

luteal phase

6

The average length of the sexual cycle each month is _____ days

28

7

The phase of the ovarian cycle that extends from ovulation to the start of menstruation is the _____ phase

luteal

8

Identify the main event(s) of the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle

growth of stratum functionalis due to the accumulation of fluid/mucus

9

A single human egg, or ovum, may also be referred to as an

oocyte

10

Rank the series of hormonal events starting with menstruation that results in ovulation

FSH causes follicular development

follicles release estrogen

estrogen triggers release of LH

LH triggers ovulation

11

The process of ____ that occurs about day 14 of the ovarian cycle includes the rupturing of the mature follicle and the release of its egg and surrounding cells

ovulation

12

The _____ phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by discharge of fluid from the vagina and marks the first day of a new cycle

menstrual

13

The _____ phase of the uterine cycle involves the rebuilding of the stratum functionalis of the endometrium via mitosis

proliferative

14

A _____ follicle consists of a single layer of cuboidal cells surrounding a large primary oocyte

primary

15

Identify the four uterine phases of the menstrual cycle

menstrual phase

proliferative phase

premenstrual phase

secretory phase

16

Estrogen has multiple effects. Choose two effects of this hormone

Inhibition of GnRH release

Upregulation of FSH, LH, and estrogen receptors in dominant follicle

17

As an egg undergoes ogenesis, the single layer of squamous cells that surround the egg undergo _______

folliculogenesis

18

A _____ follicle consists of a layer of flattened epithelial cells surrounding a primary oocyte in early meiosis

primordial

19

The transformation of a ruptured follicle into a corpus luteum is regulated by _____ hormone

luteinizing

20

List in order, starting with hypothalamus, the organs in the hierarchy of hormonal control involved in the sexual cycle

pituitary

ovaries

uterus

21

An egg cell at any stage from primary oocyte through fertilization can be referred to as an

ovum

22

During the uterine cycle, the last 2 days are the _____ phase

premenstrual

23

Identify the normal components of menstrual fluid

blood

serous fluid

necrotic endometrium

24

The ovarian stem cells that give rise to oocyte are called

oogonia

25

Identify three hormones secreted by the corpus luteum

progesterone

estradiol

inhibin

26

An egg cell at any haploid stage between meiosis I and fertilization is known as a secondary _____

oocyte

27

The hormone _____ triggers a release of lutenizing hormone which in turn triggers ovulation at the end of the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle

estrogen

28

The layer of cells that surrounds the zona pellucida and the oocyte in tertiary and mature follicles is called the

corona radiata

29

During the menstrual cycle, the drop in levels of the hormone ______ most directly triggers events leading to menstruation

progesterone

30

Stratified follicular cells surrounding an oocyte are called ______ cells

granulosa

31

The fluid filled cavity found in tertiary and mature follicles is called the _____

antrum

32

The hormone that stimulates mitosis of the stratum basalis in order to rebuild the stratum functionalis is

estrogen

33

The follicles in the final stage of development before ovulation are called _____ follicles

mature

34

Estrogens are secreted by ______ cells of the antral follicles

granulosa

35

True or false: the first polar body produced during meiosis I will result in a viable daughter cell

false

36

Which of the following defines atresia?

process of egg cell degeneration

37

After the involution of the corpus luteum, the inactive bit of scar tissue that remains is known as the corpus ______

albicans

38

Cells of the corpus luteum are called ____ cells

lutein

39

______ are the developing female gametes as they progress through meiosis I

primary oocytes

40

The menstrual cycle entails

monthly changes to the lining of the uterus

41

During follicular development the _____ follicle out paces all others undergoing development and will be ovulated

dominant

42

After an egg has been ovulated, the remnants of the follicle form a structure within the ovary called the _____

corpus luteum

43

The _____ is capable of secreting estradiol, progesterone, and inhibin

corpus luteum

44

Decreasing levels of ____ hormone leads to involution of the corpus luteum

luteinizing

45

The point upon the surface of the ovary where ovulation will occur is called the ______

stigma

46

If meiosis II of oogenesis completes, the small nonviable daughter cell that is formed is the

second polar body

47

The theca folliculi surrounds a _____ follicle

secondary

48

The series of monthly changes that occur within the female gonads are referred to as the

ovarian cycle

49

The glycoprotein layer secreted by the granulosa cells that surrounds the oocyte of secondary follicles is called the

zona pellucida

50

The _____ surrounds the oocyte ad secures it to the wall of a tertiary follicle

cumulus oophorus

51

During oogenesis, the large daughter cell that results after meiosis I is completed is called a _____ oocyte

secondary

52

The formation of the ____ polar body occurs only if the gamete cells is fertilized

second

53

The ovarian cycle entails

monthly series of events leading to development of follicles

54

The mound of granulosa cells containing the oocyte located at the edge of the antrum of tertiary and mature follicles is called the

cumulus oophorus