5 Radreview Personnel Protection

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1

According to NCRP regulations, leakage radiation from the x-ray tube must not exceed
A
10 mR/h
B
100 mR/h
C
10 mR/min
D
100 mR/min

B 100 mR/h

2

If an exposure dose of 50 mR/h is delivered from a distance of 3 ft, what would be the dose delivered after 20 minutes at a distance of 5 ft from the source?
A
6 mR
B
18 mR
C
46 mR
D
138 mR

A 6 mR

3

The radiographer's radiation monitor report must include which of the following information?1. Lifetime dose equivalent

2. Quarterly dose equivalent

3. Inception date
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

4

What is the intensity of scattered radiation perpendicular to and 1 m from a patient compared with the useful beam at the patient's surface?
A
0.01%
B
0.1%
C
1.0%
D
10.0%

B 0.1%

5

The minimum requirement for lead-equivalent content in protective aprons is
A
0.05 mm Pb.
B
0.50 mm Pb.
C
0.25 mm Pb.
D
1.0 mm Pb.

C 0.25 mm Pb.

6

Which of the following statements regarding the pregnant radiographer is (are) true?

She should declare her pregnancy to her supervisor.
She should be assigned a second personnel monitor.
Her radiation history should be reviewed.

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

7

A controlled area is defined as one

that is occupied by people trained in radiation safety
that is occupied by people who wear radiation monitors
whose occupancy factor is 1

A
1 and 2 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

8

The amount of time that x-rays are being produced and directed toward a particular wall is referred to as the
A
workload
B
use factor
C
occupancy factor
D
controlling factor

B use factor

9

Examples of primary radiation barriers include

radiographic room walls
lead aprons
radiographic room floor

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 1 and 3 only

10

The Bucky slot cover is in place to protect the

patient
fluoroscopist
technologist

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

11

The correct way(s) to check for cracks in lead aprons is (are)

to fluoroscope them once a year
to radiograph them at low kilovoltage twice a year
by visual inspection

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A
1 only

12

A student radiographer who is under 18 years of age must not receive an annual occupational dose of greater than
A
0.1 rem (1 mSv)
B
0.5 rem (5 mSv)
C
5 rem (50 mSv)
D
10 rem (100 mSv)

A 0.1 rem (1 mSv)

13

Protective devices such as lead aprons function to protect the user from

scattered radiation
the primary beam
remnant radiation

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 only

14

To be in compliance with radiation safety standards, the fluoroscopy exposure switch must
A
sound during fluoro-on time
B
be on a 6-ft-long cord
C
terminate fluoro after 5 minutes
D
be the “dead man” type

D be the “dead man” type

15

The dose equivalent limit for a radiography student under the age of 18 years is
A
7 rem.
B
5 rem.
C
0.5 rem.
D
0.1 rem.

D 0.1 rem.

16

Primary radiation barriers must be at least how high?
A
5 ft
B
6 ft
C
7 ft
D
8 ft

C 7 ft

17

The exposure rate to a body 4 ft from a source of radiation is 16 R/h. What distance from the source would be necessary to decrease the exposure to 6 R/h?
A
5 ft
B
7 ft
C
10 ft
D
14 ft

B 7 ft

18

Which of the following radiation protection measures is (are) appropriate for mobile radiography?

The radiographer must be at least 6 ft from the patient and the x-ray tube during the exposure.
The radiographer must announce in a loud voice that an exposure is about to be made and wait for personnel, visitors, and patients to temporarily leave the area.
The radiographer must try to use the shortest SID.

A
1 and 2 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 and 2 only

19

If the exposure rate at 2.0 m from a source of radiation is 18 mR/min, what will be the exposure rate at 5 m from the source?
A
2.8 mR/min
B
4.5 mR/min
C
18 mR/min
D
85 mR/min

A
2.8 mR/min

20

Which of the following can be an effective means of reducing radiation exposure?

Barriers
Distance
Time

A
1 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 2 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

21

If the exposure rate at 3 ft from the fluoroscopic table is 40 mR/h, what will be the exposure rate for 30 minutes at a distance of 5 ft from the table?
A
7 mR
B
12 mR
C
14 mR
D
24 mR

A 7 mR

22

The likelihood of adverse radiation effects to any radiographer whose dose is kept below the recommended guideline is
A
very probable
B
possible
C
very remote
D
zero

C
very remote

23

A time of 1.5 minutes is required for a particular fluoroscopic examination, whose exposure rate is 275 mR/h. What is the approximate radiation exposure for the radiologic staff present in the fluoroscopy room during the examination?
A
183 mR
B
68.7 mR
C
18.33 mR
D
6.87 mR

D 6.87 mR

24

Personnel present in the x-ray room during fluoroscopic examinations wear lead aprons to protect them primarily from
A
photoelectric scatter.
B
Compton scatter.
C
pair production.
D
magnetic fringe field.

B
Compton scatter.

25

How much protection is provided from a 75-kVp x-ray beam when using a 0.50-mm lead equivalent apron?
A
51%
B
66%
C
88%
D
99%

C 88%

26

Under what circumstances might a radiographer be required to wear two dosimeters?

During pregnancy
While performing vascular procedures
While performing mobile radiography

A
1 and 2 only
B
2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 and 2 only

27

Which of the following body parts is (are) included in whole-body dose?

Gonads
Blood-forming organs
Extremities

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

28

Radiation dose to personnel is reduced by which of the following exposure control cord guidelines?

  1. Exposure cords on fixed equipment must be very short.
  2. Exposure cords on mobile equipment should be fairly long.
  3. Exposure cords on fixed and mobile equipment should be of the coiled, expandable type.

A 1 only B 1 and 2 only C 2 and 3 only D 1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

29

What should be the radiographer's main objective regarding personal radiation safety?
A
Not to exceed his or her dose limit
B
To keep personal exposure as far below the dose limit as possible
C
To avoid whole-body exposure
D
To wear protective apparel when “holding” patients for exposures

B
To keep personal exposure as far below the dose limit as possible

30

If the exposure rate to a body standing 3 feet from a radiation source is 12 mR/min, what will be the exposure rate to that body at a distance of 7 feet from the source?
A
2.2 mR/min
B
5.1 mR/min
C
28 mR/min
D
36 mR/min

A 2.2 mR/min

31

Secondary radiation barriers usually require the following thickness of shielding:
A
1/4-inch lead
B
1/8-inch lead
C
1/16-inch lead
D
1/32-inch lead

D
1/32-inch lead

32

Sources of secondary radiation include

background radiation
leakage radiation
scattered radiation

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

33

What percentage of x-ray attenuation does a 0.5-mm lead-equivalent apron at 75 kVp provide?
A
51%
B
66%
C
75%
D
88%

D 88%

34

According to the NCRP, the total gestational dose equivalent limit for the pregnant radiographer is
A
1 mSv
B
5 mSv
C
15 mSv
D
50 mSv

B 5 mSv

35

If the ESE for a particular exposure is 25 mrad, what will be the intensity of the scattered beam perpendicular to and 1 m from the patient?
A
25 mrad
B
2.5 mrad
C
0.25 mrad
D
0.025 mrad

D
0.025 mrad

36

What is the minimum requirement for lead aprons, according to 21 CFR?
A
0.05 mm Pb
B
0.50 mm Pb
C
0.25 mm Pb
D
1.0 mm Pb

C 0.25 mm Pb

37

Some patients, such as infants and children, are unable to maintain the necessary radiographic position without assistance. If mechanical restraining devices cannot be used, which of the following should be requested or permitted to hold the patient?
A
Transporter
B
Patient's father
C
Patient's mother
D
Student radiographer

B Patient's father

38

If an individual receives an exposure of 150 mR/h at a distance of 2 feet from a radiation source, what will be their dose after 30 minutes at a distance of 5 feet from the source?
A
60 mR
B
30 mR
C
24 mR
D
12 mR

D 12 mR

39

Each time an x-ray beam scatters, its intensity at 1 m from the scattering object is what fraction of its original intensity?
A
1/10
B
1/100
C
1/500
D
1/1,000

D 1/1,000

40

Occupational radiation monitoring is required when it is likely that an individual will receive more than what fraction of the annual dose limit?
A
½
B
¼
C
1/10
D
1/40

C 1/10

41

Which of the following contributes most to occupational exposure?
A
The photoelectric effect
B
Compton scatter
C
Classic scatter
D
Thompson scatter

B Compton scatter

42

Lead aprons are worn during fluoroscopy to protect the radiographer from exposure to radiation from
A
the photoelectric effect
B
Compton scatter
C
classic scatter
D
pair production

B Compton scatter

43

The single most important scattering object in both radiography and fluoroscopy is the
A
x-ray table
B
x-ray tube
C
patient
D
IR

C patient

44

Radiation that passes through the tube housing in directions other than that of the useful beam is termed
A
scattered radiation
B
secondary radiation
C
leakage radiation
D
remnant radiation

C leakage radiation

45

How much protection is provided from a 100-kVp x-ray beam when using a 0.50-mm lead-equivalent apron?
A
40%
B
75%
C
88%
D
99%

B
75%

46

Which of the following features of fluoroscopic equipment is (are) designed especially to minimize radiation exposure to the patient and/or personnel?

Bucky slot cover
Exposure switch/foot pedal
Cumulative exposure timer

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D
1, 2, and 3

47

What percentage of x-ray attenuation does a 0.5-mm lead equivalent apron at 100 kVp provide?
A
51%
B
66%
C
75%
D
94%

C 75%

48

In the production of characteristic radiation at the tungsten target, the incident electron
A
ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron
B
ejects an outer-shell tungsten electron
C
is deflected, with resulting energy loss
D
is deflected, with resulting energy gain

A
ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron

49

Which of the following formulas is a representation of the inverse-square law of radiation used to determine x-ray intensity at different distances?
A

B

C

D

A

50

If the exposure rate to a body standing 7 ft from a radiation source is 140 mR/h, what will be the dose to that body at a distance of 8 ft from the source in 30 minutes?
A
182.8 mR
B
107 mR
C
91.4 mR
D
53.6 mR

D 53.6 mR

51

How is the intensity of an x-ray photon affected after each time it scatters?
A
Its intensity increases 4 times.
B
Its intensity increases 1000 times.
C
Its intensity decreases 4 times.
D
Its intensity decreases 1000 times.

D
Its intensity decreases 1000 times.

52

If an individual receives 50 mR while standing 4 ft from a source of radiation for 2 minutes, which of the following option(s) will most effectively reduce his or her radiation exposure to that source of radiation?
A
Standing 3 ft from the source for 2 minutes
B
Standing 8 ft from the source for 2 minutes
C
Standing 5 ft from the source for 1 minute
D
Standing 6 ft from the source for 2 minutes

B Standing 8 ft from the source for 2 minutes

53

Primary radiation barriers usually require which thickness of shielding?
A
¼-in. lead
B
⅛-in. lead
C
1/16-in. lead
D
1/32-in. lead

C 1/16-in. lead

54

How will x-ray photon intensity be affected if the source-to-image distance (SID) is doubled?
A
Its intensity increases two times.
B
Its intensity increases four times.
C
Its intensity decreases two times.
D
Its intensity decreases four times.

D Its intensity decreases four times.

55

All the following statements regarding mobile radiographic equipment are true except
A
the exposure cord must permit the operator to stand at least 6 ft from the patient, x-ray tube, and useful beam
B
exposure switches must be the two-stage type
C
a lead apron should be carried with the unit and worn by the radiographer during exposure
D
the radiographer must alert individuals in the area before making the exposure

B exposure switches must be the two-stage type