What are the 5 functions of the respiratory system?
1. Provide extensive gas exchange surface area
2. move air to and from gas exchange surface area
3. protects respiratory surfaces from outside
4. produces sounds
5. participates in olfactory sense
Where is the division line for the upper and lower respiratory tracts?
What makes up the conduction portion of the respiratory tract?
nasal cavity to bronchioles
What makes up the respiratory portion?
bronchioles to alveoli
Why are alveoli ideal for gas exchange?
they have very thin walls and a huge surface area
The respiratory defense system consists of a series of ______________ mechanisms that removes particles and pathogens.
What are the components of the RS defenses?
Mucous cells and glands
Filtration in nasal cavity
This is the inflammation of bronchial walls and causes constriction and breathing difficulty.
Bronchioles branch into __________ _________.
True or False:
Bronchioles have no cartilage and are dominated by smooth muscle.
This regulates smooth muscle, controls diameter of bronchioles, and controls airflow and resistance in lungs.
This is the dilation of bronchial airways, caused by sympathetic ANS activation, and reduces resistance.
This constricts the bronchi, is caused by parasympathetic ANS activation and histamine release (allergic reaction).
This is the result of excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction and stimulation severely restricts airflow.
Each terminal bronchiole delivers air to a single ________ _______.
Each pulmonary lobule is supplied by pulmonary ________ and _______.
Each terminal bronchiole branches to form several ________ ____________, where gas exchange takes place.
Respiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli along ________ _______.
Alveolar ducts end at ________ ______.
Alveolar epithelium consists of what?
simple squamous epithelium
thin, delicate pneumocytes type I
Alveolar epithelium are patrolled by what?
Alveolar epithelium contains pneumocytes type II that produce what?
This is an oily secretion that contains phospholipids and proteins. It coats alveolar surfaces and reduces surface tension.
This is difficult respiration due to alveolar collapse and is caused when pneumocytes type II do not produce enough surfactant.
Respiratory distress syndrome
What are the three layers of the respiratory membrane?
1. Squamous epithelial cells lining the alveolus
2. Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary
3. Fused basement membranes between the alveolar and endothelial cells
This is the inflammation of the lobules. It causes fluid to leak into alveoli and compromises the function of respiratory membrane.
The alveolar capillaries are the site of what enzyme?
Venous blood by passes the ________ circuit and flows into the pulmonary veins.
True or false:
Blood pressure in the pulmonary circuit is low.
Pulmonary vessels are easily blocked by what?
When a pulmonary blockage occurs, what is it called?
Respiration refers to what two integrated processes?
1. External respiration
2. Internal respiration
What are the three processes of external respiration?
1. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
2. Gas diffusion (across membranes and capillaries)
3. Transport of O2 and CO2 (between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in other tissues)
Abnormal external respiration is dangerous. What are the two conditions that can be caused by this?
Hypoxia - low tissue oxygen levels
Anoxia - complete lack of oxygen
This is the physical movement of air in and out of the respiratory tract.
The movement of air is what?
The aspect of air has several important physiological effects.
The weight of air
Boyles law defines?
The relationship between gas pressure and volume
What is the formula for Boyles law?
In a contained gas, external pressure forces molecules to do what?
move closer together
Air flows from an area of ______ pressure to an area of _______ pressure.
A respiratory cycle consist of?
Pulmonary ventilation cause volume changes that create changes in the what?
How does the volume of the thoracic cavity change?
with expansion or contraction of diaphragm or rib cage
This is an indicator of expandability.
Low compliance requires _______ force.
High compliance requires ______ force.
What are three factors that affect compliance?
Connective tissue structure of the lungs
Level of surfactant production
Mobility of the thoracic cage
True or False:
Pressure changes during inhalation and exhalation can be measured inside or outside the lungs.
What is normal atmospheric pressure?
1 atm = 760 mm Hg
The intrapulmonary pressure is relative to ________ pressure.
True or false:
In relaxed breathing, the difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure is large.
False. its small
This is the maximum straining, a dangerous activity, can increase range and is known as what?
Maximum Intrapulmonary Pressure
This is the pressure in the space between parietal and visceral pleura and remains below atmospheric pressure throughout respiratory cycle.
The intrapleural pressure
These are cyclical changes in the intrapleural pressure operate the respiratory pump.
The respiratory cycle
Define tidal volume.
Amount of air moved in and out of lungs in a single respiratory cycle
When an injury to the chest wall allows air into the pleural cavity.
This is known as a collapsed lung and is the result of the pneumothorax.
What are the most important muscle in the RS?
External intercostal muscles of the rib
Accessory respiratory muscles
True or False:
Inhalation is always active.
True or False
Exhalation is always passive.
it can be active or passive
What role does the diaphragm play?
contraction draws air into the lungs
75% of normal air movement
What role does the external intercostal muscles play?
25% of normal air movement
What are the accessory muscles that assist in elevating the ribs?
What are the muscles used in exhalation?
Internal intercostals - depress the ribs
Abdominal muscles - compress the abdomen and force diaphragm upward
True or false:
Respiratory movements are classified by pattern of muscle activity in quiet breathing and forced breathing.
This involves active inhalation and passive exhalation.
Quiet breathing (eupnea)
Diaphragmatic breathing or deep breathing is dominated by what?
Costal breathing or shallow breathing is dominated by what?
Rib cage movements
This is when inhalation muscles relax.
This involves active inhalation and exhalation, assisted by accessory muscles and maximum levels occur in exhaustion.
Forced breathing (hyperpnea)