The majority of cases of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome occur in
A small puncture wound on a woman's arm has become swollen, hot to the touch, and intensely painful. there is tissue necrosis but it is not "gassy," and under the microscope Gram-positive cocci in chains are present. Which of the following microbes is likely to be responsible?
Trichomonas vaginalis is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse because it
cannot live long outside the body
Which of the following is characteristic of Yersinia pestis infection
Diagnosis of hepatitis B infection is made by the observation of which of the following in the patient's body fluids?
A child is brought to the hospital with a high fever, nausea, and vomiting, and complaining of headache. The cerebrospinal fluid collected by spinal tap is cloudy and contains spherical cells which stain Gram-positive. These signs and symptoms are consistent with
Bacterial meningitis probably due to Streptococcus
Bordetella pertussis produces
dermonecrotic and adenylate cyclase toxins
"ringworm" is caused by
dermatophytes growing in upper dead tissue layers of the skin
which of the following methods of preserving food sterilizes it?
The highly destructive form of Hansen's disease is the result of
poor immune response to Mycobacterium leprae
A child has a rash on the face, arms, upper legs and torso that is splotchy, and intensifies after being in the sun. The child does not complain of fever or itchiness. The signs and symptoms are consistent with
Which of the following diseases is a major problem for AIDS patients?
Necrotizing fasciitis is caused by
both Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
When bacteria invade the kidney, the result can be
The normal habitat of ______ is rodent, but humans bitten by fleas carrying the pathogen have fever, severely inflamed lymph nodes, and headaches. Later, areas of black, necrotic tissue may develop.
A young man who works on a ranch and lives in the log bunkhouse experiences sudden fever with muscle aches. A few days later he begins to cough and have difficulty breathing, and goes to an urgent care clinic. A blood sample reveals a high leukocyte count and low platelets. A Gram-stain of sputum sample shows only a few small bacteria present. Which of the following is the most likely infecting agent?
Some strains of the virus responsible for genital warts can cause the development of
A baby arrives at an emergency room suffering from violent muscles spasms and difficulty breathing. The baby's body is so rigid a proper exam is difficult, but the staff note the baby is only a few weeks old and the umbilicus has not healed properly. The signs are consistent with which of the following diseases?
What member of the human intestinal microbiota occasionally causes life-threatening disease?
A sample from an abscess is stained and examined under the microscope. A gram stain appears uniformly pink, but a GMS stain reveals brownish filaments in the sample. These findings suggest
Ultraviolet illumination is the quickest way to diagnose infection of which of the following?
A nursing student develops a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test. A history reveals possible exposure to patients with tuberculosis. A sputum sample is acid-fast negative. When asked for vaccination records, the student reports that childhood vaccination records were lost when the family emigrated from a southeast Asian country. What is the best explanation for the test results?
The student has been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or was vaccinated with BCG vaccine
Which of the following is/are antiphagocytic?
protein A, M protein, and leukocidin
Accessory organ infections are caused by
A young woman being treated for serious burns develops severe diarrhea accompanied by intense abdominal pain. She passes several watery, foul-smelling, bloody stools a day. A colonoscopy reveals patches of yellowish lesions in the large intestine. The probably causative agent is
Which of the following sets of characteristics describes the highest level of threat potential from biological weapons?
a human pathogen easily produced as an aerosol and transmissible by respiratory aerosols
The major sign of Haemophilus ducreyi infection is similar to the initial sign of infection by
which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the common cold?
Cold viruses are frequently spread by contaminated fomites
Limiting exposure to rodents and their waste materials is an important means of preventing
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
The presence of the specimen shown in the figure in a vaginal discharge is evidence of infection with
A rash characterized by macules which swell, fill with fluid and then pus, the rupture and becomes crusty lesions, is characteristic of
The intracellular parasite usually acquired in contaminated drinking water that causes a persistent watery diarrhea is
Even though mycoplasmas [ass through filters that normally trap bacteria, they are known to be bacteria, not viruses, because they
contain both DNA and RNA and divide by binary fission
which of the following may result from eating shellfish?
the rash described as "teardrops on rose petals" is characteristic of
infection of the lymphatic vessels is known as
botulism toxin disrupts motor control by
blocking the release of acetylcholine by motor neurons
The typical signs and symptoms of flu are largely a result of
Cytokines released as part of the immune response
Schizogony is an important aspect of which of the following pathogens?
which of the following contributes to the invasiveness of Treponema pallidum?
which of the following is a common cause of otitis media?
During the spring calving season, a ranch hand begins to run a fever and feeling nauseous and achy. After he develops a headache and vomiting, he goes to a clinic. A microscopic exam of a urine sample reveals long thin microbes which move very rapidly in a corkscrewing pattern. The man may have contracted
Variant Creutzfedt-Jakob disease can be prevented by avoiding
consumption of contaminated meat
blood is found in the _____ of the heart just before it is pumped into the lungs
a person is brought to the emergency room with constant high fever, extensive edema, low blood pressure, and petechiae. from which of the following may the person be suffering?
the disease known as cryptococcal meningitis
results from exposure to bird droppings and begins as a lung infection
which of the following structures allows the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the fetal blood and the mother's blood?
Care in the handling and disposal of diapers in day care centers may prevent the spread of which of the following?
what Is the primary determinant of virulence in streptococcus pneumoniae?
the presence of a polysaccharide capsule
which of the following infectious diseases is currently of greatest concern as a biological weapon?
diagnosis of syphilis is usally made by
the MHA-TP test
which of the following is TRUE of foodborne botulism?
it is an intoxication disorder
tapeworms are usually transmitted to humans through ingestion of
a pneumonia caused by Gram-positive diplococci is known as
which of the following can mimic gonorrhea infections?
which of the following statements concerning rabies is FALSE?
All mammals can serve as a reservoir for the diesease
a man is suffering severe foot pain in the area of what looks like a large wart. He reports he has had the wart for some time, and the pain and swelling have developed slowly. A sample from the lesion shows that the pus contains large cells that stain a golden brown color. The man is likely suffering from
which of the following statements is TRUE regarding tuberculosis?
it remains viable in dried aerosol droplets for up to eight months
which of the following conditions usually results in severe acute liver damage?
co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta viruses
syphilis can be transmitted
both by sexual contact and from mother to fetus
smallpox was the first human disease to be
how does tetanospasmin affect motor control
it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS
a young woman develops a fever after a recent trip to a Caribbean island. she also experiences severe headache and pain "in the bones." after a few days, she also develops a rash. which of the following did she most likely contract?
the type of bacterial meningitis that becomes epidemic among young adults is caused by
the disorder _____ is a complication of systemic infections with Streptococcus in which antigen-antibody complexes form in the blood and get trapped in the kidneys
The appearance of this rash is characteristic of infections with which of the following?
inhalation anthrax is frequently fatal even with antibiotic therapy because
the anthrax toxin triggers severe edema of the lungs
which of the following vessels carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body?
an indication of infection with Human herpesvirus 4 is
high fever and sore throat
the primary treatment for viral gastroenteritis is
of the following, who is most likely to develop a chronic infection with hepatitis B virus?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae of the reproductive tract in women
is usually initially asymptomatic
the eukaryote _____ is a common food contaminant that can lead to foodborne illness.
the condition known as "pinkeye" may be the result of infection with
Nasal or ocular contact with water containing _____ may result in primary amebic meningoencephalitis
both Acanthomoeba and Naegleria
soy sauce is made using
Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus
Bordetella pertussis causes whopping cough by
interfering with the activity of ciliated epithelial cells in the trachea
a pigment produced by an opportunistic pathogen that contributes to tissue damage is
some microbes gain access to the normally axenic central nervous system by
Either damaging the blood-brain barrier or by axonal transport from infected peripheral neurons
which of the following statements is TRUE regarding genital herpes?
Acyclovir is effective in reducing the occurrence of lesions, but is not a cure
a young man who is an avid outdoorsman goes to see his doctor complaining of fever with chills, headache, nausea, and diarrhea. blood tests show that he has low levels of leukocytes and platelets. he may have contracted
croup is often a result of infection with which of the following?
respiratory syncytial virus
which of the following diseases is currently vaccine-preventable in humans?
which of the following causes of meningitis can be spread by the fecal-oral route?
coxsackie A virus
the presence of Gram-negative diplococci in pus from an inflamed penis is diagnostic for infection by
which of the following statements concerning the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is correct?
it is a measurement of the amount of oxygen that aerobic bacteria require to fully metabolize organic wastes in water
one summer, bird watchers and zookeepers in a major city notice that more birds than usual are dying. at the same time reports of human encephalitis cases increase sharply. The cerebrospinal fluid of human patients is clear. similar enveloped RNA virus particles are detected in samples from both birds and humans. which of the following might be responsible for this outbreak?
which of the following is becoming rarer as a result of childhood vaccinations?
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
slow deterioration of muscle function occurring over many years occurs in
which of the following is a notable symptom of giardiasis?
foul-smelling "rotten egg" stools
A person reports to a clinic complaining of fever and abdominal pain. the abdominal pain. the abdomen is swollen, and blood tests indicate kidney damage. a stool sample is examined under a microscope and found to contain the egg shown in the figure. the indications are consistent with infections with
a young adult shows up at a free clinic complaining of painful swellings in the groin. The young woman has a history of occasional casual sex, but denies noticing any genital sores or experiencing painful urination. the young woman is most likely infected with
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning diphtheria?
the signs and symptoms of the disease are directly caused by a bacterial toxin
why are nearly all AIDS patients at risk of developing Pneumocystis pneumonia?
Pneumocystis jiroveci is a common member of the respiratory microbiota in humans and opportunistic pathogen
some strains of Papillomavirus are oncogenic due to their ability to
integrate into the host cell DNA
infection with some Salmonella enterica serotypes can progress to typhoid fever when the bacteria
enter the blood and are engulfed by phagocytes
Condylomata acuminate are associated with infections of which of the following?
what was the first substance produced by microorganisms to be used pharmaceuticually?
chlorinated water contains
a decreased microbial load
which of the following microorganisms is the most commonly used indicator organism for water quality testing?
Anthrax derives its name from which of the following aspects of the disease?
the appearance of eschars on the skin
A diagnosis of genital herpes is confirmed by the
detection of herpesvirus DNA by PCR
viral meningitis is also called "aseptic meningitis"
to indicate no bacteria are involved
which of the following forms of leishmaniasis is typically fatal?
Plasmodium falciparum produces proteins that cause _____ in addition to the anemia due to erythrocyte destruction.
staphylococcal food poisoning is called an intoxication disorder because
toxins produced by the bacteria growing in the food are ingested along with the food.
Peritonitis may develop in severe cases of
lyme disease becomes chronic because
Borrelia changes its surface antigens frequently
Which of the following is known to be teratogenic?
the noninfective, obligately intracellular forms of chlamydia are called
During treatment of water to make it potable, about 90% of the microbes are removed
in the filtration step
a herpetic lesion on the finger or hand is known as a
the Gram-positive diplococcus _____ is commonly found in the pharynx but may invade the central nervous system inside cells where it survives after endocytosis.
Pathogenic streptococci of the upper respiratory tract (such as Streptococcus pyogenes) are distinguished from non-pathogenic streptococci by
beta hemolytic activity
shingles, or herpes zoster, is a reactivation of the virus that causes
The pleomorphic bacterium _____ is an obligate parasite ue to its requirement for NAD+ and heme.
Infection known as _____ frequently begins as an injury that rapidly becomes red, swollen, hot to the touch, and intensely painful.
The virulence factor of Vibrio cholera, which is primarily responsible for the signs and symptoms of cholera, is
its ability to produce a potent exotoxin
A woman goes to her gynecologist and reports that she is experiencing pain during intercourse and frequently has an unusual vaginal discharge that is increased in quantity and sort of foamy. A vaginal smear shows normal appearing epithelial cells along with small leaf-shaped cells with prominent oval nuclei. what disease is the woman experiencing?
common skin warts are the result of infection with
the resistance of pseudomonas to a wide variety of antimicrobial drugs is due, in part, to its
ability to pump drugs out of the cell
Where in a tapeworm would you expect to find fertilized eggs?
at the end of the strobila
why does taking antibacterial medications put women at risk for candidiasis?
Antibacterials deplete the normal bacterial microbiota, resulting in a change of pH
How does Borrelia burgdorferi evade the body's defenses?
it is capable of antigenic variation and has manganese-containing enzymes
"Swimmer's itch" is an initial symptom of which of the following?
which of the following statements is TRUE regarding infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
The causative agent attaches to ciliated cells in the respiratory tract
A woman who breeds parrots develops a fever and cough, and begins to have difficulty breathing. Small Gram-negative bacteria are detected inside cells
A researcher studying the impact of agricultural pesticides on native plants discovers a bacterium capable of degrading small amounts of a specific pesticide. The researcher then modifies the bacterial species in the lab to increase the rate of pesticide degradation. This research represents
both applied microbiology and environmental microbiology
another name for brucellosis is _____ fever
the typical sign of primary syphilis is
a chancre at the site of infection
which of the following is an opportunistic infection?
Diphtheria toxin kills cells by interfering with which of the following processes?
most peptic ulcers are the result of colonization of the stomach by
Bacterial agents of meningitis which can survive phagocytosis include
both Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumoniae
Which of the following statements is TURE regarding gonorrhea?
the causative agent can grow on most mucous membranes of the body
the skin is an effective barrier against invading microbes because
the outer layers are dead and covered in salt
Which of the following statements is true with regard to oral herpes?
lesions can be triggered by emotional stress of physiologic changes
a distinctive feature of secondary syphilis is
a widespread rash that can include the palms and soles
Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis is directly related to its ability to
live and reproduce inside its host's cells
A man reports to his doctor that he is tired all the time and his urine has become darker in color. he has not experienced fever or vomiting recently. the physician notes that his eyes are yellowish and his abdomen is swollen. the man has a history of kidney transplant and recently returned from an overseas trip. the man may be infected with
hepatitis E virus
which of the following statements concerning Toxoplasma infection is CORRECT?
it is typically contracted by eating undercooked meat
The major symptoms of cholera are attributable to which of the following?
activation of adenylate cyclase
Ornithosis, a disease of birds that can be transmitted to humans, is caused by
Chronic infection with _____ may progress to hepatic cancer.
both HBV and HCV
which of the following statements is CORRECT regarding the incidence of STDs?
Viral STDs in the U.S. are considered epidemic
the majority of cases of pneumonia are caused by
Rickettsias are obligate intracellular parasites because they
lack the glycolytic pathway
Potable water is water that
contains low amounts of microorganisms and is considered safe to drink
Which of the following factors is primarily responsible for the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive long periods of time in dried droplets of respiratory aerosols?
the presence of mycolic acid in the cell wall
Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a complication resulting from the
release of lipid A from dying Gram-negative bacteria
The illustration is of a Gram-negative bacterium frequently responsible for meningitis. what virulence factor(s) of the bacterium is/are illustrated?
a capsule, fimbriae, and a membrane containing LOS
Exposure to large accumulations of bird dropping may result in which of the following mycoses?
Eating sashimi (uncooked fish) is a risk factor for infection with
Rodents are the natural hosts for the virus that causes
Venezuelan equine encephalitis
which of the following is an application of proteases?
Fever, difficulty breathing, extreme fatigue, and elevated heart rate are characteristics of
a recently retired man appears at his doctor's office complaining of difficulty breathing, body aches and fatigue. he is also running a high fever and has a dry cough. he reports having just returned from a trip to the Middle East where he visited several historical sites. test results are negative for a rapid test for influenza A. no bacteria are visible in a microscopic exam of his sputum. which of the following is a likely explanation?
coronavirus respiratory syndrome
Observation of the specimens in the figure is diagnostic for
Streptokinase is useful for which of the following?
dissolving blood clots
spreading black necrosis, swelling, pain and froth or bubbles are characteristic of
which of the following statements is CORRECT concerning tularemia?
the causative agents is an intracellular bacterial parasite
Which of the following is a characteristic of bacterial vaginosis frequently used to confirm diagnosis?
the presence of clue cells
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is the result of
a hyperimmune response to reinfection with dengue virus
a large number of people experience a high fever with a rash during the summer months in a small country. epidemiologists suspect an emerging disease. both Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes are endemic to the country. Researchers are able to detect +ssRNA in the blood of fever victims and in some mosquitoes. what type of pathogen might be responsible for the epidemic?
African sleeping sickness is fatal if not treated because the parasite
evades destruction by the immune system by changing surface antigens
which of the following can cause birth defects
a common source of antibiotics is
primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus is known as
a specific example of bioremediation is
the degradation of crude oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico
Dust storms in arid regions of the Southwestern U.S. may lead to outbreaks of
Food contaminated with _____ may contain a potent neurotoxin
Shigellosis can be differentiated from salmonellosis by the fact that Shigella
multiplies in the host cell's cytosol
Which of the following causes of viral meningitis is transmitted by the fecal-oral route?
A series of nodular lesions on an arm that fill with pus and ulcerate through the skin is characteristic of infection with the fungus
A new vaccine for the upcoming flue season is developed fro an influenza isolate designated A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9). This nomenclature means the isolate is
a type A with antigens HA7 and NA9 isolated in Shanghai in February 2013
Which of the following is a common childhood parasite in the United States?
Epstein-Barr virus infections are typically asymptomatic in _____ because of incomplete development of adaptive immunity.
A new industrial park in your community dumps its wastewater into a large aerated pond, to which nutrients are added. The water from this pond makes its way into a nearby marsh, which eventually drains into a slow-moving stream. this is an example of
A reddening of the skin of the face that intensifies when exposed to the sun is characteristic of
Human infestation with Taenia saginata results from ingesting _____ in undercooked intermediate host.
A child complains of intensely itchy "pimples" on the hands and wrists. The lesions are small inflamed streaks, but do not appear to contain pus. The child's condition may be the result of infection with
the chambers and valves of the heart are lined by the
Newborns exposed to the Gram-positive bacterium _____ during vaginal birth are at risk of developing neonatal meningitis
Observation of the microbes shown in the figure from a vaginal discharge specimen is diagnostic for
the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea is
which of the following is classified as a spongiform encephalopathy?
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
An intracellular parasite primarily transmitted as an STD is the agent of _____, which may cause enough damage to result in blindness
Blastomycosis results from
inhalation of fungal spores
The _____ is a layer of tough fibers and fat cells that anchors the skin to the deeper tissues.
Which of the following bacteria is a common soil bacterium that may cause disease in humans?
A young man is experiencing fever and severe headaches, and is having difficulty staying awake. he reports having spent time in Africa on a missionary trip several months ago. Recently he spent time in a park where he went swimming in the lake and was bitten by a bat he attempted to catch. His cerebrospinal fluid is nearly clear, and contains long, slender, mobile cells. this description indicates infection with
Under some circumstances, _____ is beneficial, but inder other conditions the bacteria become overabundant leading to inflammation of hair follicles.
Cycles of fever, chills, anemia and headache along with passage of dark colored urine are the symptoms of infections with
A large number of people in a community experience diarrhea with fever. Public health authorities investigate and find that the people are passing dark urine, and some have yellowish skin. Furthermore, all of the affected individuals recently ate at a new restaurant in town known for its wide variety of fresh imported vegetables. which of the following is the most likely causative agent?
hepatitis A virus
Chancroid is caused by
Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that
survives in the environment as an intracellular parasite of a protozoan
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is primarily associated with which of the following foods?
tetanus vaccine contains
which of the following statements is TRUE with regard to Entamoeba histolytica?
it may invade the peritoneal cavity, causing serious disease
Which of the following transmits leptospirosis?
infected animal urine