MB: Exam 1

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1

Nucleic acid polymers, proteins, and complex carbohydrates are all produced by:

A. Catabolic reactions

B. Exchange reactions

C. Hydrogen bonding

D. Hydrolytic reactions

E. Dehydration synthesis

E. Dehydration synthesis

2

Which of the following are examples of pyrimidines?

A. Thymine and Adenine

B. Cytosine and Guanine

C. Cytosine and Thymine

D. Thymine and Guanine

E. Uracil and Adenine

C. Cytosine and Thymine

3

A reaction requires water as a reactant and produces heat. which type of reaction is likely to be involved?

A. An exchange reaction

B. A hydrolysis reaction

C. A synthesis reaction

D. A decomposition reaction

E. The answer cannot be determined with the available information

D. A decomposition reaction

4

What is the correct order for the steps in the scientific method?

I. Conduct experiment

II. Develop a hypothesis

III. Analyze results

IV. Accept of reject hypothesis

A. IV, III, II, I

B. I, II, III, IV

C, I, III, II, IV

D. II, I, III, IV

E. There is no specific order required

D. II, I, III, IV

5

Anna is conducting an experiment using a pH indicator that is red at low pH, green at neutral pH, and purple at high pH. She starts with a green solution. When she adds compound X to her solution it turns purple. Then she adds compound Z to the solution and it turns green. She adds more Z and the solution remains green. These observations suggest X is _____ and Z is _____.

A. An acid; a buffer

B. A base; a buffer

C. An acid; a base

D. A buffer; a base

E. A base; a strong acid

B. A base; a buffer

6

Which of the following is an accurate description of viruses?

A. They are acellular obligatory parasites

B. They are composed of protein only

C. They are typically about the size of prokaryotic cells

D. They are visible with a light microscope

E. They are the smallest known cells

A. They are acellular obligatory parasites

7

The lipids that are NOT generally components of cell membranes are

A. Triglycerides

B. Hopanoids

C. Fatty acids

D. Sterols

E. Phospholipids

A. Triglycerides

8

The _____ stain is one in which eosin is used.

A. Acid-fast.

B. Negative

C. Endospore

D. Electron microscopy

E. Flagellar

B. Negative

9

Decomposition reactions are commonly _____ reactions.

A. Endothermic

B. Exchange

C. Dehydration

D. Exothermic

E. Anabolic

D. Exothermic

10

Why does immersion oil improve resolution?

A. It increases the angle of refraction of the light

B. It increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speed

C. It decreases the working distance

D. It increases the numerical aperture

E. It allows light to travel at a uniform speed on its way to the lens

B. It increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speed

11

Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins involves _____ bonds.

A. Nonpolar covalent

B. Ionic

C. Polar covalent

D. Hydrogen

E. Hydrogen, ionic, polar, and nonpolar covalent

E. Hydrogen, ionic, polar, & nonpolar covalent

12

Why are modern light microscopes better than the ones Leeuwenhoek used?

A. Modern microscopes are compound and have fivefold better resolution

B. Modern microscopes have lenses with smaller numerical apertures

C. Modern microscopes have a fivefold better resolution

D. Modern lenses are made of prisms

E. Modern microscopes are compound instead of simple

A. Modern microscopes are compound and have fivefold better resolution

13

You are shown a micrograph from a light microscope in which the specimens appear bright compared to the background. The micrograph is probably from a(n) _____ microscope.

A. Atomic force

B. Phase-contrast

C. Dark-field

D. Nomarski

E.. Bright-field

C. Dark-field

14

Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?

A. Tertiary structure; covalent bonds

B. Secondary structure; disulfide bridges

C. Quaternary structure; two or more polypeptides

D. Primary structure; amino acid sequence

E. Secondary structure; B-pleated sheets

B. Secondary structure; disulfide bridge

15

Which of the following are unique to archaea?

A. LPS

B. Peptidoglycan

C. Pili

D. Hami

E. Fimbriae

D. Hami

16

Research suggests taking antacids may make people more susceptible to infection with Vibrio vulnifivus by making the stomach environment more tolerable to the bacteria. Based on this information and the name "antacid," which of the following are antacids likely to be?

A, Bases

B. Acids

C. Buffers

D. Non-polar compounds

E. either base or buffer

E. Either base or buffer

17

Some _____ use group translocation as means of transport.

A. Bacteria
B. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes

C. Eukaryotes

D. Protozoa

E. Archaea

A. Bacteria

18

Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that the former have

A. Thylakoids

B. Cristae

C. Two lipid bilayers

D. DNA

E. 70S ribosomes

A. Thylakoids

19

A(n) _____ is an arrangement of atoms found in a variety of macromolecules.

A. stereoisomer

B. salt

C. functional group

D. isotope

E. buffer

C. functional group

20

Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?

A. How can microorganisms be seen?

B. What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?

C. How should living organisms be classified?

D. How are microbes related?

E. How do genes work?

B. What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?

21

Which of the following concerning Koch's postulates is FALSE?

A. Koch's postulates cannot be used to demonstrate the cause of all diseases

B. A suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory

C. The suspected pathogen may not be present in all cases of the disease being studied

D. All of Koch's postulates must be satisfied before an organism can be shown to cause a particular disease

E. Koch's postulated involve the experimental infection of susceptible hosts

C. The suspected pathogen may not be present in all cases of the disease being studied

22

Amylose is a(n) ____ carbohydrate.

A. simple

B. ionic

C. polymer

D. nucleotide

E. monomer

C. polymer

23

A macromolecule containing two fatty acids and a phosphate group is a

A. steroid

B. phospholipid

C. glycerol

D. wax

E. saturated fatty acid

B. phospholipid

24

Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning the fluid mosaic model?

A. membrane proteins are free to move in two dimensions in the bilayer

B. the integrated proteins are firmly cemented in place relative to each other

C. small water-soluble molecules move freely across the bilayer

D. the phospholipids rotate across the bilayer from one face to the other

E. the phospholipids form a rigid structure

A. membrane proteins are free to move in two dimensions in the bilayer

25

What must one have before designating and conducting experiments?

A. a theory

B. a complete set of data

C. scientific flow

D. popular opinion

E. a hypothesis

E. a hypothesis

26

The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is

A. ecology

B. chemotherapy

C. serology

D. bioremediation

E. epidemiology

D. bioremediation

27

Edward Jenner's efforts to prevent small pox provided the foundation for the field of

A. chemotherapy

B. molecular biology

C. etiology

D. epidemiology

E. immunology

E. immunology

28

The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of

A. plasmolysis

B. diffusion

C. facilitated diffusion

D. group translocation

E. osmosis

D. Group translocation

29

Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat

A. cancer

B. anthrax

C. syphilis

D. cholera

E. smallpox

C. syphilis

30

Which of the following classifications methods relies on the morphology of organisms?

a. analysis of nucleic acids

b. biochemical tests

c. phage typing

d. serological tests

e. physical (phenotypic) characteristics

e. physical (phenotypic) characteristics

31

The study of occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease is known as

A. immunology

B. epidemiology

C. biochemistry

D. biotechnology

E. serology

B. epidemiology

32

What functional groups are present in ALL amino acids?

a. amino groups

b. amino and sulfhydryl groups

c. amino and carboxyl groups

d. carboxyl groups

e. hydroxyl groups

c. amino and carboxyl groups

33

The term _____ involves the study of the blood components that fights infection.

a. antisepsis

b. bioremediation

c. serology

d. etiology

e. chemotheraphy

c. serology

34

The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by

a. identifying the sources of infectious agents

b. developing techniques for isolating pathogens

c. developing vaccines

d. developing methods for reducing health care associated infections (HAI)

e. determining the taxonomic relationships among microbes

d. developing methods for reducing health care associated infections (HAI)

35

All of the following are associated with ATP molecules EXCEPT

a. formation of coenzymes

b. three phosphate groups

c. high-energy bonds

d. a long-term energy supple

e. a recyclable energy supply

d. a long-term energy supple

36

The valence of an atom represents its

a. ability to attract elements

b. ability to interact with water

c. ability to interact with other atoms

d. radioactivity

e. electronegativity

c. ability to interact with other atoms

37

Which of the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory is FALSE?

a. the cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes

b. eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells

c. mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes

d. the endosymbiotic theory is widely accepted

e. mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell

b. eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells

38

A thin film of microbes on a slide is

a. a smear

b. fixation

c. agglutination

d. a Gram reaction

e. a biopsy

a. a smear

39

Which of the following is NOT an observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?

a. some bacteria may produce acid in grape juice

b. yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice

c. yeast can grow with or without oxygen

d. yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice

e. pasteurization kills yeast to prevent spoilage of grape juice

e. pasteurization kills yeast to prevent spoilage of grape juice

40

Which of the following processes powers the rotation of the flagella of archaea?

a. ATP

b. contraction of cytoskeletal proteins

c. assembly and disassembly of microtubules

d. a sodium ion gradient

e. a hydrogen ion gradient

a. ATP

41

The first true vaccine protected against disease caused by a(n) _____ pathogen.

a. bacterial

b. viral

c. archaeal

d. protozoal

e. fungals

b. viral

42

Robert Koch's contributions to the foundations for modern microbiology include

a. providing evidence for rejecting the theory of spontaneous generation

b. demonstrating certain chemicals are toxic to bacteria but not humans

c. demonstrating that hand washing can reduce the spread of disease

d. developing methods for isolation and identification of bacteria

e. demonstrating the role of microbes in fermentation

d. developing methods for isolation and identification of bacteria

43

Bacterial cell walls are composed of

a. waxes

b. carbohydrates and waxes

c. peptides and polysaccharides

d. peptides

e. polysaccharides

c. peptides and polysaccharides

44

Which of the following was NOT as aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?

a. the flasks were incubated for very long periods of time

b. the necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape

c. he boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present

d. the flasks he used were sealed with corks

e. the flasks were fee of microbes until they were opened

d. the flasks he used were sealed with corks

45

All of the following are components of an amino acid EXCEPT a(n)

a. R group

b. pentose group

c. amino group

d. carboxyl group

e. a-carbon

b. pentose group

46

which of the following are magnifying lenses?

a. objectives

b. dark-field stops

c. condensers

d. oculars

e. both objectives and the oculars

e. both objectives and the oculars

47

Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?

a. ions only

b. small hydrophilic molecules only

c. large molecules only

d. small hydrophobic molecules only

e. both ions and hydrophilic molecules

d. small hydrophobic molecules only

48

If a microbiology lab student left the safranin out of the Gram stain procedure, what would be the result?

a. Gram-positive cells would be purple and Gram-negative cells would be colorless

b. Gram-positive cells would be pink and Gram-negative cells would be purple

c. Gram-positive cells would be colorless and Gram-negative cells would be pink

d. all cells would be pink

e. all cells would be purple

a. Gram-positive cells would be purple and Gram-negative cells would be colorless

49

which of the following lipids has the lowest ratio of hydrogens to carbons?

a. monounsaturated fats

b. polyunsaturated fats

c. both saturated and monounsaturated fats

d. saturated fats

e. saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats have equal rations of hydrogens to carbons

b. polyunsaturated fats

50

According to Kluyver and van Niel, which of the following are TRUE of basic biochemical reactions?

a. basic biochemical reactions shared by all living things primarily involve transfer of electrons and hydrogen ions

b. there are an unlimited number of them

c. they primarily involve transfers of chemical groups

d. they are shared by all living things

e. they primarily involve the transfer of electrons and ions

a. basic biochemical reactions shared by all living things primarily involve transfer of electrons and hydrogen ions

51

The Gram stain works because of differences in the _____ of bacteria.

a. capsules

b. cell membranes

c. antigens

d. genetic characteristics

e. cell walls

e. cell walls

52

The type(s) of bonds produced when atoms share electrons equally is/are:

a. a nonpolar covalent bond

b. a hydrogen bond

c. a polar covalent bond

d. an ionic bond

e. both polar covalent bond and ionic bonds

a. a nonpolar covalent bond

53

Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is CORRECT?

a. the smooth ER has ribosomes associated with it

b. the rough ER is the site of lipid synthesis

c. the smooth ER is a site of ATP synthesis

d. the ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm

e. the ER is a lipid storage organelle

d. the ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm

54

What is the correct order for the application of Koch's postulates?

I. Inoculate suspect agent into test subject and observe that subject develops disease of interest

II. Isolate and culture suspect agent in the laboratory

III. Find suspect agent in every case of disease of interest but not in healthy hosts

IV. Recover and isolate suspect agent from test subject

a. IV, I, III, II

b. III, I, IV, II

c. III, II, I, IV

d. I, II, III, IV

e. IV, I, II, III

c. III, II, I, IV

55

Heat is used to drive the stain into cells in the _____ staining procedure(s).

a. capsule stain

b. endospore stain

c. Gram stain

d. acid-fast stain

e. both acid-fast and endospore stains

e. both acid-fast and endospore stains

56

You are preforming an experiment in your chemistry lab class. The directions advise caution because the reaction is exothermic. Which of the following is the hazard the directions warn about?

a. the reaction may cause the container to freeze and break

b. the reaction will produce a noxious vapor

d. the reaction will generate radiation

e. the reaction will generate enough light to require eye protection

c. the reaction may cause the container to become dangerously hot

57

The cytoplasmic membranes of _____ contain phospholips and proteins.

a. eukaryotic cells

b. archaeal cells

c. bacterial cells

d. both bacterial and eukaryotic cells

e. archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic cells

d. both bacterial and eukaryotic cells

58

The rules of naming organisms are called:

a. classification

b. identification

c. nomenclature

d. taxonomy

e. binomials

c. nomenclature

59

What was the first disease shown to be bacterial in origin?

a. cholera

b. malaria

c. yellow fever

d. anthrax

e. tuberculosis

d. anthrax

60

Identification of bacteria in the laboratory usually begins with the _____ for placement in one of two large groups of bacteria.

a. Koch's stain

b. Ehrlich magic test

c. Gram stain

d. Petri stain

e. Pasteur fermentation test

c. Gram stain

61

The ability of a lens to gather light is referred to as its:

a. numerical exposure

b. resolution

c. refraction

d. contrast

e. magnification

a. numerical exposure

62

ATP is expended in which of the following processes?

a. active transport

b. group translocation

c. facilitated diffusion

d. diffusion

e. both active and group translocation

e. both active and group translocation

63

A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of:

a. negative chemotaxis

b. tumbles

c. positive phototaxis

d. negative phototaxis

e. positive chemotaxis

c. positive phototaxis

64

Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?

a. glycogen

b. sucrose

c. fructose

d. deoxyribose

e. glucose

a. glycogen

65

The kingdoms included in the Linnaeus system of classification are

a Animalia and Prokaryotae

b. Animalia and Plantae

c. Prokaryotae and Protista

d. Protista and Plantae

e. Fungi and Protista

b. Animalia and Plantae

66

The term that literally means "against putrefaction" is:

a. prokaryote

b. abiogenesis

c. antisepsis

d. chemotherapy

e. recombinant technology

c. antisepsis

67

All of the following are common to both the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain EXCEPT:

a. primary stain

b. a chemical mordant

c. counterstain

d. a decolorizing agent

e. a decolorizing agent and a counterstain

b. a chemical mordant

68

A research microbiologist wants to determine whether a microbe can metabolize a new synthetic organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Which of the following would be useful in tracing the fate of the compound?

a. the 2H isotope

b. a 13C+ ion

c. the 12C isotope

d. the 14C isotope

e. the 13C isotope

d. the 14C isotope

69

High resolution images of the internal structures of microbial cells are obtained using _____ microscopes.

a. transmission electron

b. scanning electron

c. atomic force

d. scanning tunneling

e. confocal

a. transmission electron

70

Which of the following statements concerning fimbriae is TRUE?

a. bacteria use fimbriae to attach to surfaces

b. a bacterial cell will usually have only one or two fimbriae

c. fimbriae facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells

d. fimbriae are about as long as flagella

e. all bacterial have fimbriae

a. bacteria use fimbriae to attach to surfaces

71

Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?

a. Gram-positive bacteria only

b. Gram-negative bacteria only

c. both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

d. all prokaryotes

e. archaea

a. Gram-positive bacteria only

72

Which of the following would NOT normally be found as a component of a cell's nucleic acids?

a. cytosine ribonucleotides

b. uracil deoxyribonucleotides

c. adenine deoxyribonucleotides

d. thymine deoxyribonucleotides

e. adenine ribonucleotides

b. uracil deoxyribonucleotides

73

Which of the following individuals pioneered the use of chemical to reduce the incidence of infections during surgery?

a. Ehrlich

b. Nightengale

c. Semmelweis

d. Lister

e. Snow

d. Lister

74

Pasteur's experiments on fermentation laid the foundation for:

a. epidemiology

b. immunology

c. abiogenesis

d. industrial microbiology

e. antisepsis

d. industrial microbiology

75

Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?

a. lipoteichoic acid

b. mycolic acid

c. N-acetylglucosamine

d. endotoxin

e. peptidoglycan

b. mycolic acid

76

Plant cell walls are composed of _____ held together by _____.

a. peptidoglycan; ionic bonds

b. disaccharides; hydrophobic interactions

c. polysaccharides; hydrogen bonds

d. amino acids; peptide bonds

e. fatty acids; polar covalent bonds

c. polysaccharides; hydrogen bonds

77

The "backbone" of the DNA molecule is composed of

a. nitrogenous bases

b. amino acids

c. pentoses

d. alternating phosphates and pentoses

e. phosphates

d. alternating phosphates and pentoses

78

Lasers are used to generate the images produced by _____ microscopes.

a. fluorescent

b. atomic force

c. confocal

d. phase-contrast

e. both confocal and atomic force

b. atomic force

79

Several cellular structures of eukaryotes facilitate movement: flagella, cilia, the cytoskeleton, and centrioles. Which of the following is a feature common to all of them?

a. powered by a proton (hydrogen ion) gradient

b. composed of flagellar proteins

c. enclosed in a lipid bilayer

d. composed of glycoproteins

e. composed of tubulin microtubles

e. composed of tubulin microtubules

80

Hydrogen bonds are found in all of the following EXCEPT:

a. in the DNA double helix between nucleotides

b. between water molecules

c. between the R groups of amino acids in proteins

d. between phosphates in ATP

e. in the structures of complex polysaccharides

d. between phosphates in ATP

81

Species and strains of microbes can be distinguished from one another phenotypically using

a. serological tests

b. electron microscopy

c. Gram-stain reactions

d. ribosomal RNA analysis

e. G + C content

a. serological tests

82

In the Gram strain procedure, iodine serves as a:

a. primary satin

b. fixative

c. decolorizing agent

d. mordant

e. counterstain

d. mordant

83

The control of infectious disease remains challenging a century after then understanding of infectious disease began. What contributes to the continuing challenge?

a. emerging diseases

b. rapidly growing estimates of the diversity of microbes

c. developing resistance to antimicrobial agents

d. both drug-resistant pathogens and emerging diseases

e. creating microbes using recombinant DNA technology

d. both drug-resistant pathogens and emerging diseases

84

One-thousandth of a meter is a

a. nanometer (nm)

b. millimeter (mm)

c. micrometer (um)

d. yard

e. centimeter (cm)

b. millimeter (mm)

85

In Gram staining, ethanol-acetone is used as a

a. mordant

b. primary stain

c. counterstain

d. drying agent

e. decolorizing agent

e. decolorizing agent

86

The light source in a _____ microscope is ultraviolet (UV) light.

a. bright-field

b. phase-contrast

c. dark-field

d. Nomarski

e. fluorescent

e. fluorescent

87

John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?

a. both infection control and epidemiology

b. immunology only

c. infection control, epidemiology, and immunology

d. epidemiology only

e. infection control only

a. both infection control and epidemiology

88

Safranin dye is used at the counterstain in _____ stain(s).

a. the acid-fast

b. the endospore

c. the flagellar

d. the gram

e. both the Gram and the endospore

e. both the Gram and the endospore

89

Lipid A is a component of:

a. cytoplasmic membranes

b. plant cell walls

c. bacterial glycocalyces

d. lipopolysaccharides

e. mycolic acid

d. lipopolysaccharides

90

Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma lack cell walls. What sort of environment do they require for survival?

a. hypertonic

b. a biofilm

c. low temperature

d. isotonic

e. hypotonic

d. isotonic

91

Which of the following is TRUE of both DNA and RNA?

a. they are usually double-stranded helices

b. The purines and pyrimidines for hydrogen-bonded pairs

c. the "backbone" is composed of riboses and phosphates

d. they are highly hydrophobic macromolecules

they contain adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine

b. the purines and pyrimidines for hydrogen-bonded pairs

92

A sample from a patient from a patient is prepared using the Gomori methenamine silver stain. what type of microbe is suspected of being present?

a. bacteria

b. parasitic worm larva

c. protozoal parasite

d. virus

e. fungus

e. fungus

93

A function of the cytoskeleton unique to bacteria is

a. orienting the assembly of the cell wall

b. providing shape to the cell

c. cellular motility

d. anchoring cytoplasmic contents

e. both cellular motility and orienting the assembly of the cell wall

a. orienting the assembly of the cell wall

94

Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of:

a. immunology

b. etiology

c. gene therapy

d. genetic engineering

e. microbial genetics

d. genetic engineering

95

The cells illustrated in figure 3-1 are in a(n) _____ environment.

Hypotonic

96

The reaction described below is consistent with Serine + ATP --> serine-P + AMP

An exchange reaction

97

The image was most likely produced by a _____ microscope.

Scanning electron

98

The part(s) of the microscope indicated by the arrows is/are the:

Objectives

99

What is the function of the cellular structure indicated by "C" in Figure 3-2?

Attach to surfaces and protect from dehydration

100

Which of the following is characteristics of proteins?

They have multiple layers of structural organization