Anatomy lecture exam 3 Flashcards


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1

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

Net filtration would decrease.

2

The ___ feeds into the glomerulus and the ___ drains the glomerulus

afferent arteriole; efferent arteriole

3

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________

is drained by an efferent arteriole

4

function of angiotensin

peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure.

5

Which hormone(s) is/are required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?

ADH

6

The function of angiotensin II is to

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

7

What happens when capsular hydrostatic pressure increases above normal

Net filtration would decrease.

8

What drains the glomerulus

What drains the glomerulus

9

The function of angiotensin

is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex

10

What hormone is responsible for facultative water reabsorption

Anti-Diuretic Hormone

11

What do the macula densa cells respond to

Changes in solute content of the filtrate

12

What are components of the filtration membrane

Glomerular endothelium
podocytes
basement membrane

13

What is the salt level monitoring part of the nephron

Macula densa

14

Essential role of large intestine bacteria

Synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

15

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves which hormone

Cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible

16

To establish the medullary osmotic gradient, the permeability of what is important?

Loop of Henle

17

What cells produce intrinsic factor

Parietal cells of the gastric glands in your stomach

18

The 4 layers of the GI canal, in order

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis Externa
Serosa (visceral peritoneum)

19

The sequence of urine formation to its elimination

Nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra

20

What makes up the lamina propria

Loose connective tissue

21

What triggers the initiation of micturition

Bladder stretching

22

Is creatinine absorbed by the PCT

Yes in solute form

23

Why is fatty tissue around the kidneys important

Stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

24

Function of the lamina propria

(more correctly lamina propria mucosæ) is a thin layer of loose connective tissue, or dense irregular connective tissue, which lies beneath the epithelium and together with the epithelium constitutes the mucosa

25

The fluid in Bowman’s capsule is similar to plasma except

Plasma protein

26

The most direct function of the JG apparatus

A system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

27

What vessels make up the splanchnic circulation

- includes arteries that branch off the abdominal aorta to serve the digestive organs and the hepatic portal circulation

28

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor to be absorbed

B-12

29

Number of permanent teeth

32

30

The urinary bladder is composed of what type of epithelium

Transitional

31

Where are the mechanical and chemical receptors for digestion located

In the walls of the tract organs

32

Structures associated with the renal corpuscle

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

33

What controls most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules

Hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

34

What is the function of mesentery

a fold of tissue that attaches organs to the body wall. The word mesentery usually refers to the small bowel mesentery, which anchors the small intestines to the back of the abdominal wall. Blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics branch through the mesentery to supply the intestine

35

Sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus

pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros

36

Solutes contained in saliva

Electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

37

What is diabetes insipidus

a rare form of diabetes caused by a deficiency of the pituitary hormone vasopressin, which regulates kidney function ,an uncommon disorder characterized by intense thirst, despite the drinking of fluids (polydipsia), and the excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria

38

The function of the hepatic portal circulation

Collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

39

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules

Osmosis instigated by ADH

40

What accomplishes reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate

Secondary active transport

41

What is tubular reabsorption

The osmotic process of ADH being released thus reabsorbing water into the system- can be triggered by hypovolemia, trauma-typically from the thirst center in the brain

42

Characteristics of the large intestine

does not contain villi, exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli, has haustra

43

Parietal cells produce what

produce gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) in response to histamine (via H2 receptors), acetylcholine (M3 receptors) and gastrin (gastrin receptors). Parietal cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach

44

What makes up the renal corpuscle

A glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule

45

What are some GFR control methods

Neural, Renal, Hormonal methods

46

What hormone aids in digestion of complex carbohydrates

Gastrin in the stomach – salivary amylase aids in the mouth

47

Functions of hepatocytes

Many important substances such as blood clotting factors, transporter proteins, cholesterol, and bile components are synthesized by the hepatocytes. The hepatocytes also regulate blood levels of substances such as cholesterol and glucose, the liver helps maintain body homeostasis

48

What is hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a reaction involving the breaking of a bond in a molecule using water.

49

What happens to fluid in the descending loop of Henle

Descending loop of Henle contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

50

Kidney function in the older adult

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy

51

Where is the lingual frenulum located

Beneath the tongue

52

Kidneys develop from what structures

Urogenital ridges

53

Function of goblet cells

goblet cell is a glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cell whose function is to secrete gel-forming mucins, the major components of mucus

54

Paneth cells secrete what

Defensins - secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

55

What increases the absorptive ability of the small intestine

Increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining by plicae circulares and intestinal villi

56

What stimulates the kidneys to produce renin

by a decrease in the blood pressure

57

What does the clearance value of zero for glucose mean

All glucose has been reabsorbed

58

What is catabolism

the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism

59

Parts of the JG complex

The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of three cells:

The macula densa a part of the distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron

juxtaglomerular cells which secrete renin

extra glomerular mesangial cells

60

Chief cells produce what

are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands and they produce HCl and Pepsin

61

Where is protein digestion initiated

Duodenum – jejunum (most)

62

What is bile and where is it normally found

Created in the liver by hepatocytes it is stored in the gall bladder for breakdown of fats

63

Eating a meal high in fat causes the gallbladder to do what

Secrete bile into the digestive tract

64

If the liver is damaged, digestion of what is most affected

Lipids or fats

65

Where are iron and calcium mainly absorbed

Small intestine – duodenum specifically

66

What stomach secretion is needed for production of hemoglobin

Intrinsic factor

67

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of intestinal villi

Active transport

68

What enzymes splits short chain triglycerides

lipase

69

What provides nervous control of gastric secretions

The vagus nerve and enteric plexus

70

How does the specific gravity of urine compare to water

A urine specific gravity test compares the density of urine to the density of water. This quick test can help determine how efficiently your kidneys are diluting your urine. Urine that’s too concentrated may indicate that your kidneys aren’t functioning properly, or simply that you aren’t drinking enough water

71

Which immunoglobulin prevents pathogens in the large intestine from going beyond the mucosa

IgA

72

Important items for reabsorption of a substance in the nephron

In the Distal Convoluted Tubule between regulating hormones and the bodys needs at the time reabsorption is dependent

73

What cells in the kidney respond to changes in solute content

Macula densa cells

74

Functions of the nephron loop

U-shaped portion of the tubule that conducts urine within each nephron of the kidney. The principal function of the loop of Henle appears to be the recovery of water and sodium chloride from the urine

75

Increase in permeability of cells in the collecting tubule is due to increase in what hormone

Increase in the production of ADH

76

Are the ureters capable of peristalsis

yes

77

What artery lies between the cortex and medulla

Arcuate

78

The outermost layer of the small intestine

Serosa

79

Where is chyme created

Stomach and small intestine

80

What factor favors filtrate formation at the glomerulus

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

81

Functions of the urinary system

Their function is to remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine; keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood; and produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons

82

How does alcohol act as a diuretic

Inhibits the release of ADH

83

What is the function of enamel on the teeth

Tooth enamel covers each of your teeth and protects them from damage

84

An enzyme specific for proteins

Trypsin

85

The cephalic phase in gastric digestion occurs when

You think of food

86

Most important hormones in regulating electrolyte reabsorption and secretion

Angiotensin II and aldosterone

87

Components of saliva

watery substance located in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands. Human saliva is 99.5% water, while the other 0.5% consists of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial, and bacteria compounds such as secretory IgA and lysozyme

88

What is chemical digestion

Chemical digestion involves breaking down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells

89

What type of epithelium is found in the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule

Simple squamous epithelium

90

Hormones which inhibit gastric secretion

Gastrin inhibiting hormone

91

What are peristaltic waves

Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

92

What does the submucosal layer of the digestive tube contain

Areolar connective tissue with lymphatic tissue

93

What is glomerular hydrostatic pressure

blood hydrostatic pressure (GBHP) - This is the chief force. It is the pressure of blood in the glomerular capillaries, i.e., 75mmHg

94

What papillae contain taste buds

Circumvallate and fungiform

95

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys

Nephron

96

Be able to explain a gastric ulcer

The danger posed by ulcers is perforation of the stomach wall followed by peritonitis and massive hemorrhage - Factors such as smoking and alcohol increase hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid and low secretion of mucus.

97

What is cystitis, be able to explain

The medical term for inflammation of the bladder. Most of the time, the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, and it's called a urinary tract infection (UTI). A bladder infection can be painful and annoying, and it can become a serious health problem if the infection spreads to your kidneys