CH.13

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1

One parent reproduces genetically identical offspring by mitosis

Asexual Reproduction

2

Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.

Sexual Reproduction

3

Where does asexual reproduction occur?

Mitotic Division

4

Where does sexual reproduction occur?

Meiosis

5

One set of chromosomes is inherited from each parent during sexual reproduction in what type of organisms?

Diploid

6

Have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes for a total of 46.

Humans

7

Have a homologous pair of X chromosomes (XX)

Females

8

Have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY)

Males

9

22 pairs of chromosomes that do not determine sex.

Autosomes

10

Splits homologus chromosomes

1st cell division of meiosis

11

Splits sister chromatids

2nd cell division of meiosis

12

Produces haploid gametes from diploid mother cells

Meiosis

13

Starts as diploid mother cells and ends as diploid mother cells

Mitosis

14

homologous chromosomes separate resulting in two haploid daughter cells with replicated chromosomes.

1st cell division of meiosis 1

15

Sister chromatids separate resulting in four haploid daughter cells with unreplicated chromosomes.

2nd cell division of meiosis 2

16

Prophase 1

Metaphase 1

Anaphase 1

Telophase 1

Occurs in meiosis 1

17

Prophase 2

Metaphase 2

Anaphase 2

Telophase 2

Occurs in meiosis 2

18

How many chromosome does a diploid cell have?

6 chromosomes

19

How many pairs of chromosomes does a diploid cell have?

3 pairs

20

How many chromosomes does a haploid cell have?

3 chromosomes

21

Homologus pairs are joined together side by side to form what type of structure?

Tetrads

22

Tetrads form in what phase?

Prophase 1 of meiosis 1

23

Tetrads move to the middle of the cell in what phase?

Metaphase 1 of meiosis 1

24

tetrads are attached to each side of the cell by spindle fibers in what phase?

Anaphase 1 of meiosis 1

25

breaks form and physically interacts with each other through crossing over.

Tetrads

26

Two new cells are formed containing 3 chromosomes in each

Telophase 1

27

Has one round and ends with 2 diploid daughter cells

Mitosis

28

Haploid cells do not occur during what cell cycle?

Mitosis

29

Has two rounds and ends with 4 haploid daughter cells

Meiosis

30

DNA replication

Both mitosis and meiosis

31

one cell division

mitosis

32

two cell divisions

meiosis

33

Synapsis and crossing over

only occurs in meiosis

34

Daughter cells, genetic composition in mitosis?

Two diploid, identical to parent cell

35

Daughter cells, genetic composition in meiosis?

four haploid, different from parent cell and eachother

36

Role in multicellular body of mitosis?

Produces cells for growth and tissue repair

37

Role in multicellular body of meiosis?

Produces gametes

38

What three mechanisms contribute to genetic variation?

  1. Independent assortment of chromosomes
  2. Crossing over
  3. Random Fertilization