development of the head
Neural plate forms from this during embryonic development
The neural plate invaginates to form a ________ and __________.
neural groove; neural folds
Neural groove fuses dorsally to form this.
This gives rise to the brain and spinal cord.
The anterior end of the neural tube gives rise to how many primary brain vesicles?
Name the three primary brain vesicles that the anterior end of the neural tube gives rise to.
prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon
These two secondary vesicles rise from the prosencephalon (forebrain)
telencephalon and diencephalon
These two secondary vesicles rise form the Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
metencephalon and myelencephalon
The telencephalon gives rise to two hemistpheres with the cortex, white matter and basal nuclei.
The diencephalon gives rise to these four organs during embryonic development.
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and retina
The mesencephalon becomes what?
Brain stem (midbrain)
The metencephalon becomes what during embryonic development?
brain stem (pons) and cerebellum
Location of the somatosensory association cortex
posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
4 adult brain regions
cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem (midbrain, pons and medulla), and cerebellum
brain stem components
midbrain, pons and medulla
central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core; external white matter is composed of myelinated fiber tracts
is the cerebral cortex thick or thin?
Comprises 40% of the brain
site of conscious mind; awareness, sensory perception, voluntary motor initiation, communication, memory storage, understanding
T or F? Each hemisphere connects to the contralateral (opposite) side of the body.
3 functional areas of the cerebral cortex
motor, sensory, and association
Function of the motor area of the cerebral cortex
controls voluntary movements
Function of the sensory area of the cerebral cortex
conscious awareness of sensation
Function of the association area of the cerebral cortex
integrates diverse information
Conscious behavior involves which part of the cerebral cortex?
4 motor areas
Primary (somatic) motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, Frontal eye field
Primary Motor Cortex
long axons called pyramidal corticospinal tracts
Function of primary motor cortex
allows conscious control of precise, skilled and voluntary movements
upside down caricatures representing the motor innervation of body regions
Location of the primary motor cortex
large pyramidal cells of the precentral gyri
Location of the premotor cortex
anterior to the precentral gyrus
Function of the premotor cortex
controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills
Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions and plans movements that depend on sensory feedback (like opening a jar top)
Why are the face and hands most often affected by a stroke?
The control areas for face and hands take up the most space in the brain.
Location of Broca's area
anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area, usually only present in the left hemisphere
Function of the Broca's area
directs muscles of the tongue for speaking
Location of frontal eye field
anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca's area
Function of the Frontal eye Field
controls voluntary eye movements
8 sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
1) primary somatosensory cortex, 2) somatosensory association cortex, 3) visual areas, 4) auditory areas, 5) olfactory cortex, 6) gustatory cortex, 7) visceral sensory area, 8) vestibular cortex
The sensory area located in the postcentral gyri
primary somatosensory cortex
Primary somatosensory cortex
receives sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints; capable of spatial discrimination; identification of body region being stimulated
Function of the somatosensory association cortex
integrates sensory input from primary somatosensory cortex; determines size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt
Primary visual striate cortex
found in the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe
The primary visual (striate) cortex is buried where?
In the calcarine sulcus
Function of the primary visual (striate) cortex
receives visual information from the retinas
Location of the visual association area
surrounds the primary visual cortex
Function of the Visual Association Area
Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (color, form and movement)
The Visual Association Area involves what part of the hemispheres?
The entire posterior halves of the hemispheres.
The auditory areas
Primary auditory cortex and Auditory association area
Where is the primary auditory cortex located?
superior margin of the temporal lobes
Function of the primary auditory cortex
interprets information from inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location
Where is the Auditory Association Area located?
posterior to the primary auditory cortex
Function of the auditory association area.
Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds.
Where is the sensory area of the olfactory cortex located?
medial aspect of the temporal lobes (in piriform lobes)
This is part of the primitive rhinencephalon, along with the olfactory bulbs and tracts.
Function of the olfactory cortex
conscious awareness of odors
Where is the sensory area of the gustatory cortex located?
Function of the gustatory cortex.
perception of taste
Where is the visceral sensory area located?
posterior to the gustatory cortex
Function of the visceral sensory area.
conscious perception of visceral sensations (upset stomach or full bladder)
Where is the vestibular cortex located?
posterior part of the insula and adjacent parietal cortex
Function of the vestibular cortex.
responsible for conscious awareness of balance (position of the head in space)
Multimodal Association Areas
Receive inputs from multiple sensory areas and sens outputs to multiple areas, including the premotor cortex
Allow us to give meaning to information received, store it as memory, compare it to previous experience, and decide on action to take
Multimodal Association Areas
Name the three Multimodal Association Areas
Anterior association area (prefrontal cortex), Posterior association area, Limbic association area