Chapter 12 A&P Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by susang_us
1,018 views
Nervous System
updated 7 years ago by susang_us
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

cephalization

development of the head

2

rostral

anterior

3

Neural plate forms from this during embryonic development

ectoderm

4

The neural plate invaginates to form a ________ and __________.

neural groove; neural folds

5

Neural groove fuses dorsally to form this.

Neural tube.

6

This gives rise to the brain and spinal cord.

Neural tube.

7

The anterior end of the neural tube gives rise to how many primary brain vesicles?

3

8

Name the three primary brain vesicles that the anterior end of the neural tube gives rise to.

prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon

9

forebrain

prosencephalon

10

midbrain

mesencephalon

11

hindbrain

rhombencephalon

12

posterior

caudal

13

These two secondary vesicles rise from the prosencephalon (forebrain)

telencephalon and diencephalon

14

These two secondary vesicles rise form the Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

metencephalon and myelencephalon

15

The telencephalon gives rise to two hemistpheres with the cortex, white matter and basal nuclei.

cerebrum

16

The diencephalon gives rise to these four organs during embryonic development.

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and retina

17

The mesencephalon becomes what?

Brain stem (midbrain)

18

The metencephalon becomes what during embryonic development?

brain stem (pons) and cerebellum

19

Location of the somatosensory association cortex

posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex

20

4 adult brain regions

cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem (midbrain, pons and medulla), and cerebellum

21

brain stem components

midbrain, pons and medulla

22

spinal cord

central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core; external white matter is composed of myelinated fiber tracts

23

is the cerebral cortex thick or thin?

thin

24

Comprises 40% of the brain

cerebral cortex

25

Cerebral cortex

site of conscious mind; awareness, sensory perception, voluntary motor initiation, communication, memory storage, understanding

26

T or F? Each hemisphere connects to the contralateral (opposite) side of the body.

T

27

3 functional areas of the cerebral cortex

motor, sensory, and association

28

Function of the motor area of the cerebral cortex

controls voluntary movements

29

Function of the sensory area of the cerebral cortex

conscious awareness of sensation

30

Function of the association area of the cerebral cortex

integrates diverse information

31

Conscious behavior involves which part of the cerebral cortex?

All 3.

32

4 motor areas

Primary (somatic) motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, Frontal eye field

33

Primary Motor Cortex

long axons called pyramidal corticospinal tracts

34

Function of primary motor cortex

allows conscious control of precise, skilled and voluntary movements

35

motor homunculi

upside down caricatures representing the motor innervation of body regions

36

Location of the primary motor cortex

large pyramidal cells of the precentral gyri

37

Location of the premotor cortex

anterior to the precentral gyrus

38

Function of the premotor cortex

controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills

39

Coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions and plans movements that depend on sensory feedback (like opening a jar top)

premotor cortex

40

Why are the face and hands most often affected by a stroke?

The control areas for face and hands take up the most space in the brain.

41

Location of Broca's area

anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area, usually only present in the left hemisphere

42

Function of the Broca's area

directs muscles of the tongue for speaking

43

Location of frontal eye field

anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca's area

44

Function of the Frontal eye Field

controls voluntary eye movements

45

8 sensory areas of the cerebral cortex

1) primary somatosensory cortex, 2) somatosensory association cortex, 3) visual areas, 4) auditory areas, 5) olfactory cortex, 6) gustatory cortex, 7) visceral sensory area, 8) vestibular cortex

46

The sensory area located in the postcentral gyri

primary somatosensory cortex

47

Primary somatosensory cortex

receives sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints; capable of spatial discrimination; identification of body region being stimulated

48

Function of the somatosensory association cortex

integrates sensory input from primary somatosensory cortex; determines size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt

49

Primary visual striate cortex

found in the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe

50

The primary visual (striate) cortex is buried where?

In the calcarine sulcus

51

Function of the primary visual (striate) cortex

receives visual information from the retinas

52

Location of the visual association area

surrounds the primary visual cortex

53

Function of the Visual Association Area

Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (color, form and movement)

54

The Visual Association Area involves what part of the hemispheres?

The entire posterior halves of the hemispheres.

55

The auditory areas

Primary auditory cortex and Auditory association area

56

Where is the primary auditory cortex located?

superior margin of the temporal lobes

57

Function of the primary auditory cortex

interprets information from inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location

58

Where is the Auditory Association Area located?

posterior to the primary auditory cortex

59

Function of the auditory association area.

Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds.

60

Where is the sensory area of the olfactory cortex located?

medial aspect of the temporal lobes (in piriform lobes)

61

This is part of the primitive rhinencephalon, along with the olfactory bulbs and tracts.

olfactory cortex

62

Function of the olfactory cortex

conscious awareness of odors

63

Where is the sensory area of the gustatory cortex located?

insula

64

Function of the gustatory cortex.

perception of taste

65

Where is the visceral sensory area located?

posterior to the gustatory cortex

66

Function of the visceral sensory area.

conscious perception of visceral sensations (upset stomach or full bladder)

67

Where is the vestibular cortex located?

posterior part of the insula and adjacent parietal cortex

68

Function of the vestibular cortex.

responsible for conscious awareness of balance (position of the head in space)

69

Multimodal Association Areas

Receive inputs from multiple sensory areas and sens outputs to multiple areas, including the premotor cortex

70

Allow us to give meaning to information received, store it as memory, compare it to previous experience, and decide on action to take

Multimodal Association Areas

71

Name the three Multimodal Association Areas

Anterior association area (prefrontal cortex), Posterior association area, Limbic association area