Physical Science Second Semester Exam STUDY GUIDE

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1

speed is the rate of change in ___________

distance

2

to describe velocity you need to know _____ and _____________

speed & direction

3

when you graph the motion of an object, you put ______ on the horizontal axis and ___________ on the vertical axis

time & distance

4

acceleration involves a change in ________

speed/direction

5

inertia depends on ___________________________________________________

resist a change in its motion

6

if you exert a force on an object in motion you will change its _____________

momentum

7

the distance traveled divided by the time taken to travel the distance is ___________ _______

speed

8

momentum is a measure of ___________________________________________________

how hard it is to stop an object

9

forces that are equal in size but opposite in direction are ______________

balanced forces

10

if gravity did not affect the path of a horizontally thrown ball, the ball would __________________________

travel horizontally

11

newton's first law of motion states that an object remains at rest unless a(n) __________ force acts on it

unbalanced

12

the force you have to overcome to start an object moving is _______________________

static friction

13

whenever a body is in motion, there is always __________ to oppose the motion

friction

14

the relationship among force, mass, and acceleration is stated in newton's _____ law

2nd

15

the statement "for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction" is a statement of newton's ___ law

3rd

16

with action-reaction forces, what happens first?

forces are created at the same time

17

when a diver jumps off a diving board, gravity pulls him or her down to the water. what is the reaction force to earth's gravity?

air resistance slows the diver

18

which of the following is NOT an example of work being done?
a. the moon orbiting earth
b. pushing a box from the bottom of a hill to the top of the hill
c. pilling a sled across a field covered with snow
d. lifting a bookbag off the flow

a. the moon orbiting earth

19

a slanted surface used to raise an object is a(n) ____________________

inclined plane

20

a device that does work with only one movement and changes the size or direction of a force is a(n) _______________________

simple machine

21

a bar that is free to pivot about a fixed point is a ______

lever

22

the rate at which work is done is called _______

power

23

the work output of a machine divided by the work output is the ____________________________ of the machine

efficiency

24

the amount by which a machine multiplies an input force is called the ________________

mechanical advantage

25

an inclined plane with one or two sloping sides forms a machine called a ________

wedge

26

an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder is a _______

screw

27

a winding mountain road is an example of a(n) ________

screw

28

when two or more simple machines work together, they are called a(n) ____________________

compound

29

three of the following simple machines are basically the same. which one that does NOT belong in the group?

lever, wedge, pulley, wheel & axle

wedge

30

which one of the following is NOT an example of a mechanical wave?

radio wave

31

which one of the following is NOT an example of an electromagnetic wave?

sound wave, red lght, x-rays, gamma rays

sound wave

32

which one of the following is NOT an example of a compressional wave?
a. wave moving through a coiled spring
b. sound traveling through the air
c. sound traveling through water
d. green light traveling through the air

d. green light traveling through the air

33

tsunamis have a large amount of energy because of their large _____________

amplitude

34

a place where molecules are far apart is a ______________

rarefaction

35

when light bounces off a surface it is called ___________

reflection

36

in which one of the following cases will refraction occur?
a. light traveling from air to glass
b. light reflecting off of a mirror
c. light blending around the corner of a door
d. green light interfering with blue light

a. light traveling from air to glass

37

to produce sound, an object must be __________

vibrating

38

you produce speech by vibration of the _______

vocal cords

39

____________ is the human perception of the energy a wave carries

loudness

40

sound travels fastest in a __________

solid

41

when you speak, your words are transferred to a friend by ______________________

molecules colliding

42

if you pass a building with a siren sounding, as you move away from the building, the sirens will sound ___________

lower

43

the part of the ear that transfers sound vibrations to the cochlea is the ___________________

oval window

44

the number of waves that pass a certain point in one second is the wave's ________________

frequency

45

sunscreen protects the skin from damage caused by _________________

u.v. radiation

46

a wave transfers ___________

energy

47

electromagnetic waves are produced by ___________________________________________________

charged particles in motion

48

vibrating charged particles make _______________ fields

magnetic/electric

49

electromagnetic waves carry ______________ energy

radiant

50

the longest wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum is the ______________

radio waves

51

the electromagnetic waves with wavelengths slightly longer than visible light are _____________

infrared

52

_____________ are used for medical imaging

x-rays

53

television uses ____________________ to transmit signals

radio waves

54

the material in which a wave travels is called ___________

medium

55

glass is an example of a ____________ material

transparent

56

if an object looks blue, it reflects ________ waves

blue

57

how can you describe the image formed by a plane mirror?

upright & reversed

58

if light waves change speed when they pass from one medium into another, the light will be ____________

refracted

59

which one of the following is think in the middle and thin at the edges?

concave lens, concave mirror, convex lens, plane mirror

convex lens

60

normally, atoms are electrically neutral because there are _________________________________________

equal # of protons & electrons

61

the buildup of electric charges on an object is called a ___________________

static charge

62

a material through which electrons do NOT readily flow is a(n) _______________

insulator

63

two objects will attract one another when they have _____________________________

opposite charges

64

one example of a good conductor is ________

copper

65

a magnetic field gets stronger as you ____________________________

get closer to the charge

66

the steady flow of electrons through a conductor is ____________

electric current

67

a battery is not used in which of the following:

flashlight, a portable radio, microwave, toys

microwave

68

copper is used in household wiring because _____________________

it has a low resistance

69

a path created for a current that allows only one route for the current is called a _________________

series circuit

70

the rate at which an electrical device converts energy from one form to another is called _________

electrical power

71

which of the following is a device designed to open an overload circuit and prevent overloading?

electrical energy, circuit breaker, electrical power, voltage regulation

circuit breaker

72

electric companies usually sell electrical energy in units of ___________

kilowatt hours

73

a circuit that has two or more separate paths for electrons to follow is a(n) ___________________

parallel circuit

74

the south pole of a magnet ________________________

attracts the north pole

75

when you break an iron magnet into two pieces, you get ______________

2 north poles & 2 south poles

76

the location of the strongest magnetic field is the ______

magnetic pole

77

the region around a magnet where the magnetic forces act is the ________________________

magnetic field

78

atoms become magnets when their _____________ are properly arranged

electrons

79

an electromagnet is _______________________________
________________

only operating when the current is on

80

the function of an electric motor is to change ______________________________

electrical energy into mechanical energy

81

a current carrying wire wrapped around an iron ore is called a(n) ___________________

electromagnet

82

changing the current changes the __________________ of an electromagnet

direction/strength

83

current that does not reverse direction is called ______________________

direct current

84

a current that reverses direction in a regular pattern is called a(n) ____________________________

alternating current

85

knife

wedge

86

leaf rake

lever

87

wheelchair ramp

inclined plane

88

potter's wheel

wheel & axle

89

threaded bolt

screw

90

does not require a medium to travel through

electromagnetic wave

91

light waves and water waves are examples of this

transverse wave

92

interaction of various different waves

interference

93

can be either transverse or compressional

mechanical wave

94

sound waves are an example of this

compressional wave