Chapter 21 Lympatic/Immune System

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1

Organisms that cause disease, such as bacteria or fungi, are considered

pathogens

2

Redness, heat, swelling, and pain are signs/symptoms that accompany

inflammation

3

List the features of the skin that offer immunoprotection

presence of lactic acid

continuous barrier to the external environment

presence of defensins

4

The lymphatic system's functions are

immunity, absorption of lipids, and fluid recovery

5

A mast cell is very similar to the type of leukocyte called a _____. Both secrete histamine, heparin, and other chemicals involved in inflammation

basophil

6

List three examples of antimicrobial proteins

defensins, interferon, complement

7

List the correct order of lymphatic flow through a lymph node

afferent lymphatic vessel

subcapsular sinus of the cortex

sinuses of the cortex and medulla

efferent lymphatic vessel

8

Cells derived from blood monocytes that function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells are called

macrophages

9

The type of defense that guards against a broad range of pathogens is ____ resistance

nonspecific

10

Abnormal accumulation of non-inflammatory tissue fluid resulting in swelling of the tissue is known as

edema

11

Lymphatic cells called NK (natural killer) cells are classified as

lymphocytes

12

List three secondary lymphoid organs

spleen, lymph node, tonsils

13

List the functions of a lymph node

site of B and T cell activation

filtration of lymph

14

Eosinophils secrete

superoxide

15

Hematopoiesis occurs in the ____ bone marrow

red

16

Name the cells that release inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and hepain

mast cells, basophils

17

Follow the flow of lymphatic fluid in the correct order beginning with the blood capillaries

blood capillaries

interstitial spaces

lymphatic capillaries

lymphatic vessels

lymphatic ducts

internal jugular and subclavian vein junction

18

Identify the body's largest lymphatic organ(s), located in the left hypochondriac region

spleen

19

A ____ is the type of granulocyte with multi-lobed nucleus that serves especially to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals

neutrophil

20

Name the cell that is found in the epidermis, mucous membranes, and lymphoid tissues that initiates immune responses by activating lymphocytes and secreting cytokines

dendritic cell

21

Name the granulocyte that functions to destroy bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and secretion of bactericidal chemicals

neutrophil

22

Name the plasma proteins that make powerful contributions to both nonspecific resistance and specific immunity

complement

23

List the features of the tonsils

lymphatic nodules

an incomplete fibrous capsule

tonsillar crypts

24

List some cells that are classified as lymphocytes

B cells

T cells

NK cells

25

Name the cells that produces and secretes antibodies

plasma cells

26

Distinct connective tissue capsules are found surrounding the lymphatic

organs

27

The thymus is considered part of several body systems. Name these

endocrine, immune, and lymphatic systems

28

Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies secreted by _____ cells

B

29

Name the leukocyte that functions as an antibody-producing cell

plasma cell

30

A cell that phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragments of it on its surface for recognition by other cells of the immune system is a ____ _____ cell

antigen presenting

31

_____ T cells perform a central coordinating role in both humoral and cellular immunity

helper

32

Name the term for an abnormal elevation in body temperature

fever

33

Name the body system that functions to maintain fluid balance in the tissue, absorbs lipids, and protects against pathogens

lymphatic system

34

List the events of B cell recognition and attack in the correct order

Immunocompetent B cells bind to antigen

B cell internalizes/displays antigen on MHC-II to TH cell

TH cells secrete interleukins which activate the B cell

B cell undergoes clonal selection

Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and memory cells

Plasma cells produce and secrete antibodes

35

List the tissue which lack lymphatic vessels

bone marrow, cornea, central nervous system, and cartilage

36

Describe lymphatic capillaries

close-ended vessels consisting of loosely overlapping endothelial cells

37

The ____ line of defense consists of several nonspecific defense mechanisms against pathogens that break through the skin or mucous membranes

second

38

Name three inflammatory mediators released by basophils and mast cells

heparin, histamine, and leukotriene

39

____ T cells attack and destroy infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of transplanted tissues by secreting perforins and granzymes

cytotoxic

40

Name the component of the lymphatic system that consists of unencapsulated aggregates of lymphocytes in the connective tissues and mucous membranes of various organs

lymphatic tissues

41

The accumulation of dead cells, fluid, and tissue debris is called

pus

42

Name the organ where T-cells mature

thymus

43

Name the cells that produce the stroma of lymphatic organs

reticular cells

44

The specialized lymphatic capillaries located in the villi of the small intestines are the

lacteals

45

Name some beneficial effects of fever

inhibition of bacterial and viral replication

elevated metabolic rate

elevated interferon activity

46

Name the leukocyte that transforms into a macrophage when it moves from the blood into the tissues

monocyte

47

The third line of defense against pathogens is

the immune system's specific defenses

48

List the mechanisms used by eosinophils to kill parasites

producing hydrogen peroxide

producing superoxide anion

49

The fluid contained in lymphatic vessels, which originates as tissue fluid, is called

lymph

50

The first line of defense against pathogens consist of

external barriers

51

List the features of lymphatic vessels

smooth muscle in vessel wall

valves present

tunica interna present

52

_____ T cells are descended from the cytotoxic T cells and are responsible for memory in cellular immunity

memory