Normal and Abnormal changes in the elderly

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created 10 years ago by kewball417
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1

What are normal changes in the eyes of the elderly?

loss of peripheral vision, depth perception, and distance
Loss of flexibility in the lens
Loss of muscle strength
Decreased ability to read small print.

2

What are abnormal changes in the eyes of the elderly?

cataracts
glaucoma
diabetic retinopathy

3

What are normal changes in the ears of the elderly?

Increased production of ear wax
Decreased ability to hear high-pitched sounds

4

What are abnormal changes in the ears of the elderly?

Hearing loss related to injury, infection, or environmental causes.

5

What are normal changes concerning touch, taste, and smell in the elderly?

Decreased sensitivity to heat and pain
Decreased sense of smell and taste

6

What are abnormal changes concerning touch, taste, and smell in the elderly?

Loss of sensation due to stroke or other neurological problems

7

What are normal changes in the teeth of the elderly?

Teeth become yellow over time
Jaw shrinks and gums receds

8

What are abnormal changes in the mouth of the elderly over time?

Losing teeth, dental caries, cancer of mouth, jaw, and salivary glands

9

What are normal changes in speech of the elderly?

Do not change

10

What are abnormal changes of speech in the elderly?

Speech changes due to stroke, or loose fitting dentures

11

What are normal changes in the skin and hair of the elderly

skin loses elasticity and takes longer to heal. It becomes drier and many people develop liver spots. Hair becomes more brittle, and thin, and loses its pigmentation.

12

What are abnormal changes in the skin and hair of the elderly?

Pressure ulcers, skin cancer

13

What are normal changes in body composition of the elderly?

Increase in adipose tissue, decrease in lean muscle mass and water.

14

What are normal changes in the kidneys of the elderly?

Decrease in size and function. This causes the body to not be able to cleanse itself of toxins easily and can lead to drug overdose. Slower urge to urinate, smaller bladder capacity.

15

What are abnormal changes in the kidneys of the elderly?

renal failure
urinary incontinence

16

What are normal changes in the skeletal system of the elderly?

Discs become thinner and muscles become weaker which contributes to a loss of height.

17

What are abnormal changes in the skeletal system of the elderly?

osteoporosis
arthritis
Injuries due to falls

18

What are normal changes in the respiratory system of the elderly?

Decreased lung capacity
Decreased amount of cilia

19

What are abnormal changes in the respiratory system of the elderly

emphysema
COPD
asthma
lung cancer
loss of alveoli function

20

What are normal changes in the muscular system of the elderly?

Decreased size, tone, flexibility, strength, elasticity, and endurance
Increased twitching and muscle spasms

21

What are abnormal changes in the muscular system of the elderly?

muscular dystrophy
multiple sclerosis

22

What are normal changes in the CNS function of the elderly?

Decreased ability to thermoregulate
Decreased processing speed
Decreased memory of things newly learned
Brain shrinks
Sleep cycles change to more naps per day and less night time hours slept

23

What are abnormal changes in the CNS funtion of the elderly?

Alzheimers, dementia, Parkinson's, stroke, Decreased brain cells due to injury, infection, or environmental factors, substance abuse

24

What are normal changes in the Gastrointestinal system of the elderly?

Decreased muscle contraction causes the body to take longer to digest food and cause a person to fill fuller faster. Decreased peristalsis can also contribute to constipation. Decreased digestive juices.

25

What are abnormal changes in the gastrointestinal system of the elderly?

Chronic constipation
Chronic inflammation of intestinal lining
gastric ulcers
Stomach and colon cancer
diverticulitis
hernias
gall bladder problems
dysphagia

26

What are normal changes in the cardiovascular system of the elderly?

Increased heart size
Decreased efficiency
35% decrease in function
Vessels lose elasticity
Increased Blood Pressure
Decreased blood flow and circulation

27

What are abnormal changes in the cardiovascular system of the elderly?

Heart disease
Hypertension
Hypotension
Congestive Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Atherosclerosis
Dysrhythmias
Thrombosis
Myocardial Infarction

28

What are normal changes of the reproductive system in the elderly?

Decrease in hormones
Women ceases menses and ovulation
Vaginal dryness
Slowed sexual response

29

What are abnormal changes of the reproductive system in the elderly?

Uterine prolapse
Erectile dysfunction
Lack of sex drive

30

What are normal changes of the immune system in the elderly?

Decreased antibodies
Slower healing process
Do not respond to infection the same as when younger (lack of fever, possible lack of WBC)

31

What are abnormal changes of the immune system in the elderly?

Thrombocytosis
Agranulocytosis