AP Biology Chapter 11,12,13

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 11-13
Chapter 11,12, and 13.2 vocabulary
Grade levels:
11th grade, 12th grade
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1

Signal Transduction Pathway

A series of steps linking a mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus to a specific cellular response

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Local Regulators

A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted

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Hormones

In multi-cellular organisms, one of many types of secreted chemicals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells in other parts of the body, changing the target cells' functioning. Hormones are thus important in long-distance signaling

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1.) Reception

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2.) Transduction

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3.) Response

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Ligand

A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a large one

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G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)

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G Protein

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Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)

A receptor protein spanning the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic (intracellular) part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tryosine on another protein. RTKs often respond to the binding of a signaling molecule by dimerizing and then phosphorylating a tyrosine on the cytoplasmic portion of the other receptor in the dimer. The phosphorylated tyrosines on the receptors then activate other signal transduction proteins within the cell.

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Ligand-gated ion channel (receptor)

card image

A transmembrane protein containing a pore that opens or closes as it changes shape in response to signaling

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Protein kinase

An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein

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Protein phosphatases

An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from (dephosphorylates) proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase

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Second messengers

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Cyclic AMP or cAMP

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Adenylyl Cyclase

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Inositol trisphosphate (IP3)

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Diacylglycerol (DAG)

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Scaffolding proteins

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Apoptosis

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Cell division

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Cell cycle

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Genome

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Chromosomes

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Chromatin

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Somatic cells

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Gametes

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Sister Chromatids

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Centromere

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Mitosis

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Cytokinesis

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Mitotic (M) phase

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Interphase

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G1 phase

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S phase

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G2 phase

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Prophase

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Prometaphase

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Metaphase

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Anaphase

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Telophase

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Mitotic Spindle

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Centrosome

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Aster

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Kinetochore

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Metaphase plate

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Cleavage

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Cleavage furrow

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Cell plate

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Binary fission

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Origin of replication

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Cell Cycle Control System

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Checkpoint

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G0 phase

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Cyclin

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Cyclin-dependent kinases or Cdks

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Growth factor

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Density-dependent inhibition

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Anchorage dependence

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Transformation

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Benign tumor

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Malignant tumor

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Metastasis

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Life Cycle

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Karyotype

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Homologous chromosomes

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Sex chromosomes

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Autosomes

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Diploid cell

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Haploid cells

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Zygote

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Fertilization

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Meiosis

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Alternation of generations

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