Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 6 Notes Flashcards


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1

Articular cartilages

cover the ends of most bones and moveable joints

2

Coastal cartilages

Connect the ribs to the sternum

3

Respiratory cartilages

form the skeleton of the larynx and reinforce other respiratory passagways

4

Nasal cartilages

support the external nose

5

The only type of fiber found in Hyaline cartilage's matrix is:

collagen fibers

6

Location of Hyaline Cartilage

Respiratory, coastal, nasal, and articular

7

Location of Fibrocartilage

menisci of the knee, and discs between vertebrae

8

Location of elastic cartilage

the external ear, and epiglottis

9

names of the two ways cartilage forms

appositional growth and interstitial growth

10

Appositional growth

cartilage cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix agains the external face of the existing cartilage.

11

perichondrium

a layer of DICT that acts like a girdle to resist outward expansion when cartilage is compressed. Also contains blood vessels that diffuse nutrients through the matrix to cartilage cells internally

12

Interstitial growth

The lacunae bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within

13

7 functions of bones

  1. support
  2. protection
  3. anchorage
  4. mineral and growth factor storage
  5. blood cell formation
  6. triglyceride (fat) storage
  7. hormone production

14

The axial skeleton includes the bones of:

  1. skull
  2. vertebral column
  3. rib cage

15

The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of:

  1. upper and lower limbs
  2. the girdles (shoulders and hips)

16

Long Bones

  • are longer than they are wide
  • has a shaft plus two ends
  • all limbs besides knee and ankle bones are long bones

17

Short bones

  • Are roughly cube shaped
  • wrist and ankles

18

Sesamoid Bones

  • A special type of short bone
  • forms in a tendon

19

Flat bones

  • thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved

sternum scapulae ribs most skull bones

20

Irregular bones

  • Have complicated shapes that don't fit into any other categories
  • vertebrae and hip bones

21

Trabeculae

a honeycomb of beams inside of spongy bone, filled with yellow or red bone marrow