Anatomy Final compilation

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created 6 years ago by Isabela_Leech
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updated 6 years ago by Isabela_Leech
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1

What are all the different types of synovial joints

  • Plane
  • Hinge
  • Pivot
  • Saddle
  • Ball and Socket
  • Condyloid
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Plane Joint

bones with articulating surfaces that are flat or slightly curved, allowing for limited movement; pivot joints consist of the rounded end of one bone fitting into a ring formed by the other bone to allow rotational movement. Non axial movement
Ex: intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints

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Hinge joint

act like the hinge of a door; the slightly-rounded end of one bone fits into the slightly-hollow end of the other bone; one bone remains stationary. uni axial movement
ex: elbow

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Pivot joints

rounded end of one bone fitting into a ring formed by the other bone. This structure allows rotational movement, as the rounded bone moves around its own axis. uni axial movement
ex:Proximal radioulnar joints, radius-ulna

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Condylar Joint

an oval-shaped end of one bone fitting into a similarly oval-shaped hollow of another bone.allows angular movement along two axes. Bi axial movement
ex: knuckle joints and wrist joints

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Saddle joint

Each bone in a saddle joint resembles a saddle, with concave and convex portions that fit together. Saddle joints allow angular movements similar to condyloid joints, but with a greater range of motion. Bi-axial movement

example: the thumb joint, which can move back and forth and up and down; it can move more freely than the wrist or fingers .

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Ball and socket joint

Ball-and-socket joints possess a rounded, ball-like end of one bone fitting into a cup-like socket of another bone. This organization allows the greatest range of motion, as all movement types are possible in all directions. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are the shoulder and hip joints .

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Flexion, extension and hypertension

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flexion- a bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulation bones closer together

Extension- the reverse of flexion. increases the angle between the articulating joints & typically straightens the a flexed limb

hyperextension- continuing such movement beyond the anatomical position

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Gliding

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Occurs when one flat, or nearly flat bone surface glides or slips over another. Occurs in wrist

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Rotation

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The turning of a bone around its own long axis. Rotation may be directed toward or away from midline.

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Abduction and Adduction

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Abduction: Movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body Ex: raising arm or thigh

Adduction: Opposite of Abduction. Movement of a limb towards the midline or body

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Circumduction

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The moving of a limb so that it does a cone in space. The distal end of a limb moves in a circle, while the point of the cone is more or less stationary

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Pronation and supination

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Refers to the movement of radius around the ulna.

Supination: Rotating the forearm laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly

Pronation: the forearm rotates medially and the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly. The two bones form an X

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Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion

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Dorsiflexion: Lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin

Plantar Flexion: Depressing foot. (pointing toes)

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opposition

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Thumb. This movement is the action taken when you touch your thumb to the tips of other fingers on the same hand

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Protraction and Retraction

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Protraction: nonangular anterior movements

Retraction: Nonangular posterior movements

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Elevation and Depression

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Elevation: lifting a body part superiorly

Depression: Moving the elevated part inferiorly

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Diffusion

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Osmosis

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Concept of selective permeability

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Passive transport

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Active transport

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