Nucleic acid polymers, proteins, and complex carbohydrates are all produced by
a. catabolic reactions
b. exchange reactions
c. hydrogen bonding
d. hydrolytic reactions
e. dehydration synthesis
Which of the following are examples of pyrimidines?
a. thymine and adenine
b. cystosine and guanine
c. cytosine and thymine
d. thymine and guanine
e. uracil and adenine
A reation requires water as a reactant and produces heat. Which type of reaction is likely to be involved?
a. an exchange reaction
b. a hydrolosis reaction
c. a synthesis reaction
d. a decomposition reaction
e. the answer cannot be determined with the available information
What is the correct order for the steps in the scientific method?
I. Conduct experiment
II. Develop a hypothesis
III. Analyze results
IV. Accept of reject hypothesis
a. IV, III, II, I
b. I, II, III, IV
c. I, III, II, IV
d. II, I, III, IV
e. There is no specific order required
Anna is conducting an experiment using a pH indicator that is red at low pH, green at neutral pH, and purple at high pH. She starts with a green solution. When she adds compound X to her solution it turns purple. Then she adds compound Z to the solution and it turns green. She adds more Z and the solution remains green. These observations suggest X is _____ and Z is _____.
a. an acid; a buffer
b. a base; a buffer
c. an acid; a base
d. a buffer; a base
e. a base; a strong acid
Which of the following is an accurate description of viruses?
a. They are acellular obligatory parasites.
b. They are composed of protein only.
c. They are typically about the size of prokaryotic cells.
d. They are visible with a light microscope.
e. They are the smallest known cells.
The lipids that are NOT generally components of cell membranes are
c. fatty acids
The ______ stain is one in which eosin is used.
d. electron microscopy
Decomposition reactions are commonly ____ reactions.
Why does immersion oil improve resolution?
a. It increases the angle of refraction of the light.
b. It increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speed.
c. It decreases the working distance.
d. It increases the numerical aperture.
e. It allows light to travel at a uniform speed on its way to the lens.
Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins involves ____ bonds.
a. nonpolar covalent
c. polar covalent
e. hydrogen, ionic, polar, and nonpolar covalent
Why are modern light microscopes better than the ones Leeuwenhoek used?
a. Modern microscopes are compound and have fivefold better resolution.
b. Modern microscopes have lenses with smaller numerical apertures.
c. Modern microscopes have a fivefold better resolution.
d. Modern lenses are made of prisms.
e. Modern microscopes are compound instead of simple.
You are shown a micrograph from a light microscope in which the specimens appear bright compared to the background. The micrograph is probably from a(n) ______ microscope.
a. atomic force
Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?
a. tertiary structure; covalent bonds
b. secondary structure; disulfide bridges
c. quaternary structure; two or more polypeptides
d. primary structure; amino acid sequence
e. secondary structure; B-pleated sheets
Which of the following are unique to archaea?
Research suggests taking antacids may make people more susceptible to infection with Vibrio vulnificus by making the stomach environment more tolerable to the bacteria. Based on this information and the name "antacid," which of the following are antacids likely to be?
d. non-polar compounds
e. either base or buffer
Some ___ use group translocation as a means of transport.
b. eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that the former have
c. two lipid bilayers
e. 70S ribosomes
A(n) ______ is an arrangement of atoms found in a variety of macromolecules.
c. functional group
Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?
a. How can microorganisms be seen?
b. What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?
c. How should living organisms be classified?
d. How are microbes related?
e. How do genes work?
Which of the following concerning Koch's postulates is FALSE?
a. Koch's postulates cannot be used to demonstrate the cause of all diseases.
b. A suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory.
c. The suspected pathogen may not be present in all cases of the disease being studied.
d. All of Kock's postulates must be satisfied before an organism can be shown to cause a particular disease.
e. Koch's postulated involve the experimental infection of susceptible hosts.
Amylose is a(n) _____ carbohydrate.
A macromolecule containing two fatty acids and a phosphate group is a
e. saturated fatty acid
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning the fluid mosaic model?
a. Membrane proteins are free to move in tow dimensions in the bilayer.
b. The integrated proteins are firmly cemented in place relative to each other.
c. Small water-soluble molecules move freely across the bilayer.
d. The phospholipids rotate across the bilayer from one face to the other.
e. The phospholipids form a rigid structure.
What must one have before designating and conducting experiments?
a. a theory
b. a complete set of data
c. scientific flow
d. popular opinion
e. a hypothesis
The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is
Edward Jenner's efforts to prevent smallpox provided the foundation for the field of
b. molecular biology
The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
c. facilitated diffusion
d. group translocation
Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat
Which of the following classification methods relies on the morphology of organisms?
a. analysis of nucleic acids
b. biochemical tests
c. phage typing
d. serological tests
e. physical (phenotypic) characteristics
The study of occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease is known as
What functional groups are present in ALL amino acids?
a. amino groups
b. amino and sulfhydryl groups
c. amino and carboxyl groups
d. carboxyl groups
e. hydroxyl groups
The term ____ involves the study of the blood components that fights infection.
The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by
a. identifying the sources of infectious agents
b. developing techniques for isolating pathogens
c. developing vaccines
d. developing methods for reducing health care associated infections (HAI)
e. determining the taxonomic relationships among microbes
All of the following are associated with ATP molecules EXCEPT
a. formation of coenzymes
b. three phosphate groups
c. high-energy bonds
d. a long-term energy supply
e. a recyclable energy supply
The valence of an atom represents its
a. ability to attract elements
b. ability to interact with water
c. ability to interact with other atoms
Which of the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory is FALSE?
a. The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes.
b. Eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells.
c. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
d. The endosymbiotic theory is widely accepted.
e. Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
A thin film of microbes on a slide is
a. a smear
d. a Gram reaction
e. a biopsy
Which of the following is NOT an observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?
a. Some bacteria may produce acid in grape juice.
b. Yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice.
c. Yeast can grow with or without oxygen.
d. Yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice.
e. Pasteurization kills yeast to prevent spoilage of grape juice.
Which of the following processes powers the rotation of the flagella of archaea?
b. contraction of cytoskeletal proteins
c. assembly and disassembly of microtubules
d. a sodium ion gradient
e. a hydrogen ion gradient
The first true vaccine protected against disease caused by a(n) ____ pathogen.
Robert Koch's contributions to the foundations fo modern microbiology include
a. providing evidence for rejecting the theory of spontaneous generation
b. demonstrating certain chemicals are toxic to bacteria but not humans
c. demonstrating that hand washing can reduce the spread of disease
d. developing methods for isolation and identification of bacteria
e. demonstrating the role of microbes in fermentation
Bacterial cell walls are composed of
b. carbohydrates and waxes
c. peptides and polysaccharides
Which of the following was NOT as aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?
a. the flasks were incubated for very long periods of time
b. the necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape
c. he boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present
d. the flasks he used were sealed with corks
e. the flasks were fee of microbes until they were opened
All of the following are components of an amino acid EXCEPT a(n)
a. R group
b. pentose group
c. amino group
d. carboxyl group
Which of the following are magnifying lenses?
b. dark-field stops
e. both objectives and the oculars
Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
a. ions only
b. small hydrophilic molecules only
c. large molecules only
d. small hydrophobic molecules only
e. both ions and hydrophilic molecules
If a microbiology lab student left the safranin out of the Gram stain procedure, what would be the result?
a. Gram-positive cells would be purple and Gram-negative cells would be colorless.
b. Gram-positive cells would be pink and Gram-negative cells would be purple.
c. Gram-positive cells would be colorless and Gram-negative cells would be pink.
d. All cells would be pink.
e. All cells would be purple.
Which of the following lipids has the lowest ratio of hydrogens to carbons?
a. monounsaturated fats
b. polyunsaturated fats
c. both saturated and monounsaturated fats
d. saturated fats
e. saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats have equal rations of hydrogens to carbons
According to Kluyver and van Niel, which of the following are TRUE of basic biochemical reactions?
a. Basic biochemical reactions shared by all living things primarily involve transfer of electrons and hydrogen ions.
b. There are an unlimited number of them.
c. They primarily involve transfers of chemical groups.
d. They are shared by all living things.
e. They primarily involve the transfer of electrons and ions.
The Gram stain works because of differences in the ____ of bacteria.
b. cell membranes
d. genetic characteristics
e. cell walls
The type(s) of bonds produced when atoms share electrons equally is/are
a. a nonpolar covalent bond
b. a hydrogen bond
c. a polar covalent bond
d. an ionic bond
e. both polar covalent and ionic bonds
Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is CORRECT?
a. The smooth ER has ribosomes associated with it.
b. The rough ER is the site of lipid synthesis.
c. The smooth ER is a site of ATP synthesis.
d. The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.
e. The ER is a lipid storage organelle.
What is the correct order for the application of Koch's postulates?
I. Inoculate suspect agent into test subject and observe that subject develops disease of interest.
II. Isolate and culture suspect agent in the laboratory.
III. Find suspect agent is every case of disease of interest but not in healthy hosts.
IV. Recover and isolate suspect agent from test subject.
a. IV, I, III, II
b. III, I, IV, II
c. III, II, I, IV
d. I, II, III, IV
e. IV, I, II, III
Heat is used to drive the stain into cells in the ____ staining procedure(s).
a. capsule stain
b. endospore stain
c. Gram stain
d. acid-fast stain
e. both acid-fast and endospore stains
You are performing an experiment in your chemistry lab class. The directions advise caution because the reaction is exothermic. Which of the following is the hazard the directions warn about?
a. The reaction may cause the container to freeze and break.
b. The reaction will produce a noxious vapor.
c. The reaction may cause the container to become dangerously hot.
d. The reaction will generate radiation.
e. The reaction will generate enough light to require eye protection.
They cytoplasmic membranes of ____ contain phospholips and proteins.
a. eukaryotic cells
b. archaeal cells
c. bacterial cells
d. both bacterial and eukaryotic cells
e. archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic cells
The rules of naming organisms are called
What was the first disease shown to be bacterial in origin?
c. yellow fever
Identification of bacteria in the laboratory usually begins with the ____ for placement in one of two large groups of bacteria.
a. Koch's stain
b. Ehrlich magic test
c. Gram stain
d. Petri stain
e. Pasteur fermentation test
The ability of a lens to gather light is referred to as its
a. numerical exposure
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
a. active transport
b. group translocation
c. facilitated diffusion
e. both active and group translocation
A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of
a. negative chemotaxis
c. positive phototaxis
d. negative phototaxis
e. positive chemotaxis
Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?
The kingdoms included in the Linnaeus system of classification are
a. Animalia and Prokaryotae
b. Animalia and Plantae
c. Prokaryotae and Protista
d. Protista and Plantae
e. Fungi and Protista
The term that literally means "against putrefaction" is
e. recombinant technology
All of the following are common to both the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain EXCEPT
a. primary stain
b. a chemical mordant
d. a decolorizing agent
e. a decolorizing agent and a counterstain
A research microbiologist wants to determine whether a microbe can metabolize a new synthetic organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Which of the following would be useful in tracing the fate of the compound?
a. the 2H isotope
b. a 13 C+ ion
c. the 12C isotope
d. the 14C isotope
e. the 13C isotope
High resolution images of the internal structures of microbial cells are obtained using ____ microscopes.
a. transmission electron
b. scanning electron
c. atomic force
d. scanning tunneling
Which of the following statements concerning fimbriae is TRUE?
a. bacteria use fimbriae to attach to surfaces
b. a bacterial cell will usually have only one or two fimbriae
c. fimbriae facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells
d. fimbriae are about as long as flagella
e. all bacterial have fimbriae
Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?
a. Gram-positive bacteria only
b. Gram-negative bacteria only
c. both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
d. all prokaryotes
Which of the following would NOT normally be found as a component of a cell's nucleic acids?
a. cytosine ribonucleotides
b. uracil deoxyribonucleotides
c. adenine deoxyribonucleotides
d. thymine deoxyribonucleotides
e. adenine ribonucleotides
Which of the following individuals pioneered the use of chemical to reduce the incidence of infections during surgery?
Pasteur's experiments on fermentation laid the foundation for
d. industrial microbiology
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
a. lipoteichoic acid
b. mycolic acid
Plant cell walls are composed of ____ held together by ____
a. peptidoglycan; ionic bonds
b. disaccharides; hydrophobic interactions
c. polysaccharides; hydrogen bonds
d. amino acids; peptide bonds
e. fatty acids; polar covalent bonds
The "backbone" of the DNA molecule is composed of
a. nitrogenous bases
b. amino acids
d. alternating phosphates and pentoses
Lasers are used to generate the images produced by ____ microscopes
b. atomic force
e. both confocal and atomic force
Several cellular structures of eukaryotes facilitate movement: flagella, cilia, the cytoskeleton, and centrioles. Which of the following is a feature common to all of them?
a. powered by a proton (hydrogen ion) gradient
b. composed of flagellar proteins
c. enclosed in a lipid bilayer
d. composed of glycoproteins
e. composed of tubulin microtubles
Hydrogen bonds are found in all of the following EXCEPT
a. in the DNA double helix between nucleotides
b. between water molecules
c. between the R groups of amino acids in proteins
d. between phosphates in ATP
e. in the structures of complex polysaccharides
Species and strains of microbes can be distinguished from one another phenotypically using
a. serological tests
b. electron microscopy
c. Gram-stain reactions
d. ribosomal RNA analysis
e. G + C content
In the Gram stain procedure, iodine serves as a
a. primary stain
c. decolorizing agent
The control of infectious disease remains challenging a century after the understanding of infectious disease began. What contributes to the continuing challenge?
a. emerging diseases
b. rapidly growing estimates of the diversity of microbes
c. developing resistance to antimicrobial agents
d. both drug-resistant pathogens and emerging diseases
e. creating microbes using recombinant DNA technology
One-thousandth of a meter is a
a. nanometer (nm)
b. millimeter (mm)
c. micrometer (um)
e. centimeter (cm)
In Gram staining, ethanol-acetone is used as a
b. primary stain
d. drying agent
e. decolorizing agent
The light source in a ____ microscope is ultraviolet (UV) light
John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?
a. both infection control and epidemiology
b. immunology only
c. infection control, epidemiology, and immunology
d. epidemiology only
e. infection control only
Safranin dye is used at the counterstain in ____ stain(s).
a. the acid-fast
b. the endospore
c. the flagellar
d. the Gram
e. both the Gram and the endospore
Lipid A is a component of
a. cytoplasmic membranes
b. plant cell walls
c. bacterial glycocalyces
e. mycolic acid
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma lack cell walls. What sort of environment do they require for survival?
b. a biofilm
c. low temperature
Which of the following is TRUE of both DNA and RNA?
a. They are usually double-stranded helices.
b. The purines and pyrimidines for hydrogen-bonded pairs.
c. The "backbone" is composed of riboses and phosphates.
d. They are highly hydrophobic macromolecules.
e, They contain adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
A sample from a patient is prepared using the Gomori methenamine silver stain. What type of microbe is suspected of being present?
b. parasitic worm larva
c. protozoal parasite
A function of the cytoskeleton unique to bacteria is
a. orienting the assembly of the cell wall
b. providing shape to the cell
c. cellular motility
d. anchoring cytoplasmic contents
e. both cellular motility and orienting the assembly of the cell wall
Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of
c. gene therapy
d. genetic engineering
e. microbial genetics