PSY 240

Helpfulness: +3
Set Details Share
created 9 years ago by JVela1992
6,351 views
A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development
updated 9 years ago by JVela1992
Grade levels:
College: Second year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development

Development s the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. It includes both growth and decline. studying life-span development help prepare us to take responsibility for children, gives us insight abut our own lives, and gives us knowledge about what our lives will be like as we age.

2

Characteristics of Life-Span Perspective

The life-span perspective includes these basic conceptions: Development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, and plastic; its study is multidisciplinary; it is embedded in contests; it involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and it is a co-construction of biological, sociocultural, and individual factors. Three important sources of contextual influence are (1) normative age graded influences, (2) normative history graded influences, and (3) non normative life events.

3

Some Contemporary Concerns

Health and well-being, parenting, education, sociocultural contexts and diversity, and social policy are all areas of contemporary concern that are closely tied to lifespan development. Important dimension of the sociocultural context include culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and gender There is increasing interest in social policy issues related to children and to older adults

4

Development

the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span

5

Life-span Perspective

the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary and contextual; involves growth, maintenance and regulation of loss and is constructed through biological sociocultural and individual factors working together.

6

Normative age-graded influences

influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.

7

Normative history-graded influences

influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances.

8

Non-normative life events

Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a individual's life

9

Culture

The Behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

10

Cross-cultrual studies

comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures. these provide information about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and the degree to which it is culture-specific

11

Ethnicity

A characteristic based on cultural heritage nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language.

12

Socioeconomic status (SES)

Classification of a person's position in society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

13

Gender

The characteristics of people as females or males

14

Social Policy

A government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens

15

Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes.

Three key developmental processes are biological, cognitive, and socioemotional. Development is influence by an interplay of these processes.

16

Periods of Development

The life-span is commonly divided into the following periods of development: prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood. Recently, life-span developmentalists have described the human life span in terms of four ages, with a special focuses on the third and fourth ages (young old and oldest old.)

17

The Significance of Age

An increasing number of studies have found as adults get older they are happier. We often thing of age only in terms of chronological age, but a full evaluation of age requires consideration of chronological, biological, psychological, and social age.

18

Developmental Issues

The nature-nurture issue focuses on the extent to which development is mainly influence by nature (biological inheritance) or nurture (experience). The stability change issue focuses on the degree to which we become older rendition of our early experience or develop into someone different from who were earlier in development. A special aspect of the stability-change issue is the extent to which development is determined by early versus later experiences. Developmentalists describe development as continuous (gradual, cumulative change) or as discontinues (abrupt, a sequence of stages). Most developmentalists recognize that extreme position on th nature-nurture, stability-change, and continuity discontinuity issues are unwise. Despite this consensus, there is still spirited debate on these issues.

19

Biological processes

Processes that produce changes in an individuals's physical nature.

20

Cognitive processes

Processes that involve changes in an individuals thought, intelligence, and language

21

Socioemotional Processes

processes that involve changes in an individuals relationships with other people, emotions, and personality.

22

Nature-Nurture issue

Debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature of nurture. Nature refers to an organism's biological inheritance, nurture to it s environmental experiences. The "nature proponents" claim biological inheritance is the more important influence on development; the "nurture proponents" claim the environmental experiences are more important.

23

Stability-Change issue

Debate as to whether and to what degree we become older renditions of our early experiences (stability) or whether we develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier point in development (change).

24

Continutiy-discontinuity issue

Debate that focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)

25

Theory

An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions

26

Hypotheses

Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy

27

psychoanalytic theories

Theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely as surface characteristic, and symbolic working of the mind must be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized.

28

Erikson's Theory

Theory that proposes eight stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique development task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.

29

Piaget's theory

Theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.

30

Vygotsky's theory

Sociocultral cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.

31

Information-processing thoery

Theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to it's theory are the processes of memory and thinking.

32

Social cognitive theory

Theoretical view that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development.

33

Ethology

Theory stressing that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.

34

Bronfenbrenner's ecological thoery

Focuses on five environmental systems: Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem

35

Eclectic theoretical orientation

Does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered best in it.

36

Laboratory

A controlled setting from which many of the complex factors of the "real world" have been removed.

37

naturalistic observation

Observing behavior in real-world settings

38

Standardized test

A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals.

39

Case Study

An in-depth look at a single individual

40

Descriptive research

A type of research that aims to observe and record behavior

41

Correlation research

A type of research that strives to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics.

42

Correlation coeffiecient

A number based on a statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.

43

Experiment

Carefully regulated procedure in which on or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.

44

Cross-sectional approach

A research strategy in which individual of different ages are compared at one time.

45

Longitudinal approach

A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.

46

Cohort effects

Effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation, but not actual age.

47

Ethnic gloss

use of an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogenous than it really is.

48

Evolutionary psychology

A branch of psychology that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the the fittest" in shaping behavior.

49

Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

50

DNA

A complex molecule that has a double helix shape and contains genteic information

51

Genes

Units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and assemble proteins that direct body processes.

52

Mitosis

Cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself; two new cells are formed, each containing the same DNA as the original cell, arranged in the same 23 paris of chromosomes.

53

Meiosis

A specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm (or gametes)

54

Fertalization

A stage in reproduction whereby an egg and sperm fuse to create a single cell, called zygote.

55

Zygote

A single cell formed through fertalization

56

Phenotype

Observable and measurable characteristics of an individual, such as height, hair, color, and intelligence.

57

Down Syndrome

A chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.

58

Klinefelter Syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY.

59

Fragile X Syndrome

A chromosomal disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks.

60

Turner syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or part of one X-chromosome is detected.

61

XYY Syndrome

A chromosomal disorder i which males have an extra Y chromsome

62

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

A genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalaine, an amino acid; PKU is now easily detected- but, if left untreated, results in mental retardation and hyperactivity.

63

Sickle-cell anemia

A genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells and occurs most often in African Americans.

64

Behavior genetics

The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual difference in human traits and development.

65

Twin Study

A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins.

66

Adoption Study

A study in which investigators seek to discover whether in behavior and psychological characteristics adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment or more like their biological parents who contributed their heredity. Another form of the adoption study compares adoptive and biological siblings.

67

Passive genotype-environment correlations

Correlations that exist when the biological parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child.

68

Evocative genotype-environment correlations

Correlations that exist when the child's characteristics elicit certain types of environments.

69

Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations

Correlations that exist when children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating.

70

Shared environmental experiences

Siblings' common experiences, such as their parents' personalities or intellectual orientation, the family's socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live.

71

Nonshared environmental experiences

The child's own unique experiences, both within the family ad outside the family, that are not shared by another sibling; thus experiences occurring within the family can be part of the "non shared environment."

72

Epigenetic view

Perspective that emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing bidirectional inheritance between heredity and environment.

73

Gene X environment (gxe) interaction

The interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment.