Anatomy & Physiology - Chapter 19
Bring oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Two from each lung carry blood into the left atrium
The right ventricle sends blood into this vessel
Inferior vena cava
brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body to the right atrium
Superior vena cava
brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper body to the right atrium
The left ventricle sends blood into this vessel
Composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel
Protects and reinforces the vessel; anchors it to surrounding structures
Mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin
Capable of undergoing vasoconstriction or vasodilation to influence blood flow and blood pressure
Contains the endothelium (made of simple squamous epithelium)
It's flat cells fit closely to form a slick surface that minimizes friction as blood moves through
Blood containing space in center of the vessel.
Provides a space for blood to travel through the vessel.
Thick-walled, large vessels near the heart that conduct blood continuously away from the heart
smaller vessels that distribute blood to specific body organs.
smallest of the vessels that lead into capillary beds.
smallest blood vessels with thin walls that allow exchange between blood and tissue cells.
Smallest vessels leading away from capillaries
contain valves to assist blood flow back towards the heart
The volume of blood flowing through a vessel, and organ, or the entire circulation in a given period.
The force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood
The opposition to flow - a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels.
A source of resistance related to thickness or stickiness of the blood
Total blood vessel length
A source of resistance related to the distance blood has to travel through layers of fat to reach a destination.
Muscular artery traveling near the humerus bone.
Left subclavian artery
Third major branch of the aortic arch
First major branch of the aortic arch
The only branches of the ascending aorta
common carotid arteries
supply most of the blood to the head
First vessel leaving the pulmonary side of the heart to carry blood to the lungs.
Branches of pulmonary arteries, structurally like veins, and venules, with thin walls and large lumens
Area of exchange for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Smallest veins, collect blood from capillaries as it flows back toward the heart.
During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the
right ventricle and moves to the lungs
During systemic circulation, blood leaves the
left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta
The endothelium is composed of
simple squamous epithelium
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the
The correct sequence of layers in the vessel wall from outside to inside:
The major long-term mechanism of blood pressure control is provided by
Exchange of gasses and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the
capillaries and tissue cells
Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called
Reduction in the lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as
The only vessels that provide direct assess to nearly every cell in the body are the
What regulates blood flow at the entrance to each true capillary?
In _______________________, blood volume is normal and constant but there is an abnormal expansion of the vascular beds, resulting in a huge drop in peripheral resistance, causing blood pressure to fall rapidly.
_________________arteries branch to form the common hepatic artery, left gastric artery, and the splenic artery
The _________________ is the longest in the body, running from the sole of the foot up to the inguinal region (without changing names)
Great saphenous vein
Which of the layers of an artery wall is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and many hormones?
What type of blood vessels have the proportionally thickest tunica media of all vessels?
_____________inhibits fibrinolysis by competing with plasminogen and may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
The minute-to-minute blood flow through the capillary beds is determined by the
diameter of arterioles
The pressure of ___________stabilizes the wall of the capillaries
__________do not contain intercellular clefts
The flow of blood from the left ventricle to the right atrium is called the
A metarteriole is a vessel that
is intermediate between the arteriole and the capillary bed.
Up to 65% of the body's blood supply is found in
Where are dural sinuses present?
Most neural controls of blood pressure involve input from baroreceptors which are sensitive to
Changes in blood pressure
An elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media is a characteristic of
What blood vessel is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis?
What is the major force generating blood flow?
pumping action of the heart
Blood enters the myocardium of the heart by coronary vessels that originate from the
The blood does not produce
What plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure?
What leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?
perniclous anemia - results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
_______________ is the universal donor. People with this blood type can give blood to __________
all the ABO blood groups
_______________ are the precursor cells that ultimately form basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils
________________ leads to an above normal level of oxygen in the blood, which would not stimulate RBC production