Chapter 18 The Circulatory System

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1

Identify which of the following are functions of the circulatory system.

Buffers acids and bases

Limits the spread of infection

Transports nutrients and gases

2

Lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes are all examples of

leukocytes

3

Blood is a fluid connective tissue. Its fluid matrix is called

plasma

4

Hematology is the study of

blood

5

The formed elements of blood are platelets, erythrocytes, and five type of leukocytes, which include eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, and

lymphocytes

6

The cardiovascular (not circulatory) system includes the

heart and blood vessels

7

List in order the events of a platelet plug formation.

Contact with collagen of a broken vessel or another rough surface

Platelets grow long spiny pseudopods

Platelets stick to each other

The pseudopods then contract and draw the vessel walls together

This mass of platelets forms a platelet plug

8

Describe normal erythrocytes

Discoidal cells with a bioconclave shape and contain hemoglobin to transport gases like oxygen

9

When a person receives a transfusion from a compatible blood type:

no change in the person's blood type occurs

10

The main components of blood are a fluid portion called ____ and formed elements that include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and _____

plasma, platelets

11

Name the specific protein in the cytoplasm of red blood cells that transports gases in the blood

hemoglobin

12

Define hemopoiesis

The process of formation of all the blood formed elements

13

List the leukocytes from most abundant to least abundant

Neutrophils

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Eosinophils

Basophils

14

The bioconcave blood cells that lack a nucleus and other organelles are called

erythrocytes

15

Basophils release _____ and ______

heparin and histamine

16

_____ is the process of development of white blood cells

leukopoiesis

17

List the ways that the body uses iron

Nearly all cells use Fe2+ to make electron-transport molecules (cytochromes) in their mitochondria

The muscles use Fe2+ to make the myoglobin

The bone marrow uses Fe2+ for hemoglobin synthesis

18

List the correct order for the steps of hemostasis

1) vascular spasm

2) platelet plug formation

3) blood coagulation

19

Iron is critical for the synthesis of _____, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells

hemoglobin

20

The three components of the circulatory system are the blood vessels, the blood, and the

heart

21

The transport function of plasma includes the transport of

nutrients from the digestive system

22

Identify the characteristics of neutrophils

They are the most abundant leukocyte

They have nuclei of various shapes

23

The buffy coat is about 1% of the blood volume and it is composed of

leukocytes and platelets

24

Leukocytes called _____ function to destroy large parasites

eosinophils

25

Name three mechanisms that prevent inappropriate clotting

dilution of clotting factors

platelet repulsion caused by postacyclin

presence of anticoagulants such as heparin and antithrombin

26

The ____ are the least common of the formed elements of the blood

leukocytes

27

Which of the following cause hemolytic anemia?

penicillin allergy

sickle cell disease, thalassemia, malaria

blood type incompatibilities

snake and spider venom

28

Organize the sequence of events that lead to the disposal of the heme during RBC recycling

1) macrophages remove the iron

2) macrophages convert the heme into biliverdin

3) a yellow-green pigment called bilirubin is formed

29

Cell fragments produced from megakaryocytes are called ____

platelets

30

State the purpose of a differential WBC count

Determine the number and ratio of various leukocytes in a sample

31

List some causes of anemia

increased hemolysis, hemorrhage, and inadequate hemoglobin synthesis

32

A generalized condition in which there is too little hemoglobin or too few erythrocytes is

anemia

33

A blood clot consists of a meshwork formed of the protein called

fibrin

34

List the agranulocytes

monocytes and lymphocytes

35

Describe how various plasma components are continuously replaced in the body

water, nutrients, and electrolytes are obtained through absorption in the digestive tract

gamma globulins come from plasma cells

most proteins are produced by the liver

36

Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein. List its functions

pH buffering of plasma, solute transport, and maintenance of osmolarity

37

_____ is the process of platelet formation

thrombopoiesis

38

Place in the order the steps in iron metabolism from the moment it is absorbed from the intestine until it is distributed to be used in the body

1) Absorbed Fe2+ binds to transferrin in plasma

2) Some transferrin releases Fe2+ for storage in the liver

3) Fe2+ binds apoferritni to be stored as ferritin

4) Remaining transferrin goes to other organs where Fe2+ is used

39

Which describes leukemia?

A form of cancer that results in very high numbers of leukocytes and their precursors in he blood

40

List some causes of leukocytosis

infection, dehydration, and allergy

41

Match the precursos cell with the cells that arise from each

monoblast and monocyte

myeloblast and granulocyte

lymphoblast and lymphocyte

42

Define viscosity

resistance to flow due to the cohesion of its particles

43

The largest type of leukocyte (based on size) found circulating in the blood is the

monocyte

44

Thrombosis is more likely to occur in veins than in arteries because

blood flows more slowly and does not dilute thrombin and fibrin as rapidly

45

Name three clinical measurements that express the blood's ability to carry oxygen

hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and RBC count

46

In addition to water, the plasma consists of

ablumins, globulins, and fibrinogen

electrolytes, nutrients, and organic wastes

47

Leukocytes called _____ have a two-lobed nucleus and rosy to orange-colored granules when stained

eosinophils

48

Place in order the steps in iron metabolism from the moment of iron intake until it is absorbed from the digestive tract

1) a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ is ingested

2) the stomach acid converts Fe3+ and Fe2+

3) Fe2+ binds to gastroferrin

4) Gastroferrin carries Fe2+ to intestine for absoprtion

49

Antigens on the surface of the erythrocyte membranes determine

blood type

50

A person with blood type B was accidentally given a transfusion of blood type A. List the consequences of this transfusion reaction.

hemolysis of RBCs occurs and hemoglobin is released over the next few hours to days

agglutinated RBCs block small blood vessels

51

Name the site of plasma proteins production

liver

52

_____ is the condition in which the platelet count is less than 100,000

thrombocytopenia

53

The process by which clots become more compact is called clot

retraction

54

Hemostasis typically involved ____ mechanisms of coagulation

both extrinsic and intrinsic

55

Indicate which of the following are the correct values of some characteristics of blood

total WBC count: 5,000-10,000

pH: 7.35-7.45

osomlarity: 280-296

volume in females: 4-5 L; volume in males: 5-6 L

56

The interaction of protein factors to produce a clot is called

coagulation

57

List, in order, the stages of erythropoiesis from least differentiated to most differentiated

hemopoiectic stem cell

colony-forming unit

eryhtroblast

reticulocyte

erythrocyte

58

Define hemostasis

physiological process that controls excessive bleeding

59

List two features of reticulocytes that differ from a mature red blood cell

reticulocytes have polyribosomes; RBCs do not

RBCs are more numerous; only 0.5-1.5% of circulating blood cells are reticulocytes

60

Identify the test that provides information about RBC, WBC, and platelet count

CBC

61

_____ is the rupture of red blood cells

hemolysis

62

People with blood type O are considered universal

donors

63

Myeloid hemopoiesis occurs in the ____, while lymphoid hemopoiesis occurs in _____

bone marrow; lymphatic organs

64

List some functions of proteins in plasma

transport of iron, copper, lipids, hydrophobic hormones

body defense

clotting

65

The ABO blood type _____ is sometimes called the universal recipient

AB

66

Place in order the main steps of development of white blood cells or leukopoiesis

hemopoietic stem cells (HSE)

colony forming units (CFU)

precursor cells (myeloblasts, monoblasts, lymphoblasts)

mature cells

67

Define eryhtopoiesis

production of RBCs

68

A blood cell called a ____ is the granulocyte whose granules contain heparin and histamine

basophil

69

Describe he role of erythopoietin

stimulates red blood cell production

70

Describe lymphocytes

a small cell with a large round nucleus

71

An excess of red blood cells is called

polycythemia

72

Name the most common ion found in the blood

sodium

73

Identify which of the following are functions of lymphocytes

Coordinate actions of other immune cells

"present" antigens to activate other cells of immune system

serve in immune memory

destroy cancer cells , cells infected with viruses, and foreign cells

74

The percentage of the blood's volume composed of erythrocytes is called the

hematocrit

75

List, in order, the events that occur during fibrinolysis

1) prekallikrein is converted to kallikrein

2) kallikrein catalyzes the formation of plasmin

3) plasmin dissolves the blood clot

76

When collagen in the wall of a blood vessel is exposed as a result of injury, _____ adhere and develop long, spiny pseudopods which draw the vessel walls back together

platelets

77

A blood clot that forms in an undamaged vessel is called a ______. If it breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream it is called a ______

thrombus, embolus

78

____ anemia is more common in women because of blood loss during menses

hemorrhagic

79

Name the result of coagulation

conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

80

List functions of macrophages

phagocytize dead cells, destroy foreign antigens, and present antigens

81

High levels of bilirubin in the blood lead to a condition called

jaundice

82

A ____ is a mass of clotted blood in the tissues

hematoma

83

Describe the function of an antibody

to bind to an antigen and mark it for destruction

84

Name the erythrocyte-bound antigens used to determine the most common type of blood typing

A,B

85

Describe erythrocytes

they lack internal organelles and perform anaerobic fermentation

86

Two alpha and two beta protein chains form ____ hemoglobin

adult

87

The clinical values for the RBC and hemoglobin content of the blood differ significantly between women and men. List three factors that explain the difference

men have less body fat

women sustain menstrual losses

androgens stimulate RBC production

88

Bone marrow transplants are a treatment options for several conditions such as leukemia. Indicate which of the following statements are true

it is difficult to find compatible donors

up to one-third of patients die from complications

a graft-versus-host response may occur

89

Resulting in different blood types, red blood cells have specific antigens on their surfaces called

agglutinogens

90

The enzyme _____ converts fibrinogen into fibrin

thrombin

91

A ____ is a giant precursor cell with a multilobed nucleus which fragments to form platelets

megakaryocyte

92

Toxic end products of catabolism include _____ such as urea, which is a product of amino acid catabolism

nitrogenous wastes

93

Name the function of hemopoietic tissue

they produce the formed elements of blood

94

A clot is formed by a mesh framework of the protein called

fibrin

95

_____ leukemia is typified by uncontrolled production of agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) and agranulocyte precursors

lymphoid

96

Name the formed element of blood that transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide

erythrocytes

97

List some risks associated with polycythemia

increased blood viscosity, increased blood volume, and high blood pressure

98

List possible causes of hypoplastic or aplastic anemia

drugs and posions, viruses, radiation, and autoimmune disease

99

Monocytes that migrate into the tissues become phagocytes called

macrophages

100

Name the first response to a blood vessel injury

vascular spasm