Biology 1A

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Test #1 (part 1)
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1

What is the distinction between evolution in language
(example: the evolution of galaxies) and evolution in
biology?

In biology, evolution involves heredity

2

What is the core theme of Biology?

Evolution

3

In Linnaeus' binomial nomenclature. The organisms

genus and species

4

What is the "Goal" of evolution?

There is no goal for evolution.
A common question to ask is "Why is this the way it is?" with
the expectation that some structure or other
feature has a purpose behind it. There will not
always be a good reason. For example, the
vagus /laryngeal nerve pathways that control the
heart / larynx. The laryngeal nerve follows the
vagus nerve down from the brain to the heart,
then loops around and proceeds back up to the
larynx. This makes no sense from a functional
aspect.

5

What is energy?

the capacity to do work

6

What is metabolism?

The sum of all the chemical reactions in an
organism.

7

Organic Molecules contain: (MARK ALL THAT
APPLY)

a. Nitrogen
b. Phosphorous
c. Hydrogen
d. carbon
e. Oxygen

a. Nitrogen
b. Phosphorous
c. Hydrogen
d. carbon
e. Oxygen

8

A control group:

does not receive a treatment.

9

Organic Molecules are molecule that come from
living organisms and contain what elements? (Mark
all that apply)

a. S
b. C
c. O
d. H
e. N

a. S
b. C
Note, this is note a strict definition,
some sources say a C­C bond is considered an
organic molecule also.
c. O
d. H
e. N

10

A Hydrocarbon contains: (Mark all that apply)

a. N
b. O
c. H
d. S
e. C

a. N
b. O
c. H
d. S
e. C

11

Isomers are compounds with:

the same numbers of atoms of the same
elements but with different structures

12

Which functional group (side­chain) can be "cross­
linked" in protein?

card image

sulfhydryl

13

What is a polymer?

long molecule consisting of many similar
building blocks.

14

Hydrogen bonds are: (MARK ALL THAT APPLY)

a. between ions
b. covalent bonds
c. represented by dotted lines
d. between a positive (partial) and negative
(partial) charge

a. between ions
b. covalent bonds
c. represented by dotted lines
d. between a positive (partial) and negative
(partial) charge

15

The hydrogen bonds water forms with other
molecules make it sticky. This results in properties
such as: (MARK ALL THAT APPLY)

a. capillary action
b. cohesion
c. surface tension
d. adhesion

a. capillary action
b. cohesion
c. surface tension
d. adhesion

water sticks to and attracts anything with a charge (ionic or partial)

16

Molecules can have both polar and non­polar
portions, what happens to the non­polar portions in
water.

They aggregate away from water.

17

What happens to solutes, such as ions, in a solution?

Water forms a hydration shell around it.
This means that water is attracted to the solute
and must therefore also be in a higher proportion
in solution.

18

The primary function of starch is:

Energy storage

19

What functional group is most common in a
monosaccharide?

card image

Carbonyl

Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and may be subcategorized as aldoses or ketoses. The sugar is an aldose if it contains an aldehyde functional group. A ketose signifies that the sugar contains a ketone functional group.

20

Which of the following is NOT a monosaccharide?

a. Galactose
b. Fructose
c. Glucose
d. Maltose
e. riobse

d. Maltose

21

Monosaccharides

a. Galactose
b. Fructose
c. Glucose
e. riobse

22

Which form of a monosaccharide is more prevalent in
water?

ring

23

When 2 monosaccharides combine they form what kind
of bond?

card image

Glycosidic

24

A very long chain of monosaccharides is called a:

polysaccharide

25

Which of the following is composed of ONLY glucose
monomers? (mark all that apply)

a. Cellulose
b. Starch
c. glycogen
d. chitin
e. Maltose

a. Cellulose
b. Starch
c. glycogen
d. chitin
e. Maltose

26

All lipids are:

hydrophobic

27

Which of the following is NOT a lipid?

a. phospholipid
b. steroids
c. Triacylglycerol
d. polypeptide
e. cholesterol

d. polypeptide

28

Lipids

a. phospholipid
b. steroids
c. Triacylglycerol
e. cholesterol

29

Which of the following is NOT a polymer?

a. proteins
b. DNA
c. starch

d.Fats

d.Fats

30

A fatty acid consist of: (Mark All That Apply)

a. glycerol
b. hydrocarbon chain
c. carboxyl
d. triglyceride
e. amino

b. hydrocarbon chain
c. carboxyl

31

An amphipathic (or biphasic) molecule:

is hydrophobic on one side and hydrophilic on
the other.

32

How many rings are in cholesterol?

card image

4

33

a triglyceride is composed of: (Mark All That Apply)

a. amino groups
b. cholesterol
c. fatty acids
d. glycerol

card image

a. amino groups
b. cholesterol
c. fatty acids
d. glycerol

34

The building blocks of protein are:

amino acids

35

Which of the following are functional groups attached
to the central alpha carbon of an amino acid? (Mark
All That Apply)

a. carboxyl group
b. ester
c. amino group
d. hydrogen atom
e. side chain
f. phosphate

a. carboxyl group
b. ester
c. amino group
d. hydrogen atom
e. side chain
f. phosphate

36

Which of the parts of an amino acid are always the
same? (Mark All That Apply)

a. central alpha carbon with hydrogen
b. side chain
c. carboxyl group
d. amino group

a. central alpha carbon with hydrogen
b. side chain
c. carboxyl group
d. amino group

These are called the amino acid backbone.

37

Amino acid backbone.

card image

central alpha carbon with hydrogen
carboxyl group
amino group

38

Which part of an amino acid is unique to a particular
amino acid?

side chain

This is often referred to as the variable group or R­
group. Although R is also a generic way of saying
anything with a C (carbon).

39

Category for the side chains?

b. Hydrophobic / non­polar
c. Hydrophillic ­ negatively charged
d. Hydrophillic ­ positively charged
e. Hydrophillic / polar

40

When multiple amino acids link up together they form
a polymer (long chain) called a:

card image

Polypeptide

41

How many levels of protein structure are there?

card image

4

42

Primary level of protein structure

Sequence of amino acids

43

Secondary level of protein structure

segments of the chain forming coiled or folded

44

Tertiary level of protein structure

the main, 3­dimensional shape.

description of the complex and irregular folding of the peptide chain in three dimensions

45

Quaternary level of protein structure

The 3­dimensional shape of an aggregate

arrangement of more than one protein molecule in a multi-subunit complex.

46

What are the 2 most common secondary structures of a protein?

Alpha­-helicies
Beta­pleated sheets

There were only 2 listed in your reading, these are
considered the most common, however, there are
many other common secondary structures.

47

a beta­pleated sheet is an example of what level of
protein structure?

secondary

48

What is the best / most accurate (currently) method
for determining a protein structure?

X­ray crystallography

49

What is it called when the shape of a protein is
destroyed?

denaturation

50

degradative processes in metabolism are called:

catabolic pathways

51

for a reaction to be spontaneous it must have:

a negative change in G

52

A reaction that absorbs energy is:

endergonic

53

How do you get an endergonic reaction to happen?

couple it to an exergonic reaction

54

Which of the following is NOT true about enzymes?

a. The provide and alternate route for a chemical reaction
b. They are used up in the reaction and are lost
c. They are catalysts
d. They lower activation energy

a. The provide and alternate route for a chemical reaction
b. They are used up in the reaction and are lost
c. They are catalysts
d. They lower activation energy

55

The location on the enzyme that binds to substrates is called the:

active site

56

A noncompetitive inhibitor:

binds to an enzyme away from the active site

57

when a molecule affects enzyme's shape and function it is known as:

...

58

What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?

nitrogenous base
(usually just referred to as the "base" (base as in acid/base)

phosphate
pentose
(a monosaccharide, pentose (5) because there are 5 carbons)

59

what is the variable part of a nucleotide?

card image

base

A nucleotide is one of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base (one of four chemicals: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphoric acid.

60

What is the structure of phosphate?

PO4

61

What is the difference between Ribose and
deoxyribose?

deoxyribose has one few hydroxyl group (OH)

62

Which of the following is NOT in RNA?

a. Uracil
b. Cytosine
c. Adenine
d. Guanine
e. Thymine

a. Uracil
b. Cytosine
c. Adenine
d. Guanine
e. Thymine

63

How many rings does a purine have?

2

64

The 2 strands of DNA go in opposite directions, which is called:

anti­parallel

65

What direction does DNA ALWAYS go in?

5' ­­> 3'

66

What feature do all cells have?

plasma membrane

67

The liquid/jelly portion of a cell is called the:

Cytosol

68

The______ cell's size the _________ the surface
area to volume ratio.

smaller / larger

69

What type of organism lacks a nucleus

prokaryote

70

Which of the following is found only in plant cells and
NOT in animal cells?

chloroplast

71

Function of Ribosome

carries out protein synthesis

72

Organells of cell Involved in the transport of proteins

b. golgi apparatus
c. Transport Vesicles
d. Endoplasmic reticulum

73

Organelle that would likely be able to break down bacteria?

lysosome

74

What is a protein that has a carbohydrate covalent
bonded to it called?

a. glycoprotein ?
b. lipoprotein ?

d. glycolipid ??

75

Which of the following is not a fiber of the
cyoskeleton

a. microfilaments
b. centriole
c. microtubule
d. keratins

a. microfilaments
b. centriole
c. microtubule
d. keratins

76

How do ions pass through the lipid bilayer?

Transport Proteins

77

Which direction will molecules diffuse?

Down its concentration gradient

78

What is it called when substances use energy to cross a membrane?

active transport

79

the diffustion of water is called:

Osmosis

80

A cell that has more non­penetrating solutes is:

hypertonic

81

The process by which molecules are taken into the cell by pinching in to form a new vesicle is called:

endocytosis

82

What is the most prevalent catabolic pathway?

aerobic respiration