Sociology 3

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1

beliefs

tenets or convictions that people hold to be true

2

countercultures

groups that reject and oppose society's widely accepted cultural patterns

3

cultural imperialism

the deliberate imposition of one's own cultural value on another culture

4

cultural relativism

the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture

5

cultural universals

patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies

6

culture

shared beliefs, values, and practices

7

culture lag

the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and non material culture's acceptance of it

8

culture shock

an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life

9

diffusion

the spread of material and non material culture from one culture to another

10

discoveries

things and ideas found from what already exists

11

ethnocentrism

the practice of evaluating another culture according to the standards of one's own culture

12

folkways

direct, appropriate behavior in the day to day practices and expressions of a culture

13

formal norms

established, written rules

14

globalization

the integration of international trade and finance markets

15

high culture

the cultural patterns of a society's elite

16

ideal culture

the standards a society would like to embrace and live up to

17

informal norms

casual behaviors that generally and widely conformed to

18

innovations

new objects or ideas introduced to culture for the first time

19

inventions

a combination of pieces of existing reality into new forms

20

language

a symbolic system of communication

21

material culture

the objects or belongings of a group of people

22

mores

the moral views and principles of a group

23

nonmaterial culture

the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society

24

norms

the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured

25

popular culture

mainstream, widespread patterns among a society's population

26

real culture

the way society really is based on what actually occurs and exists

27

sanctions

a way to authorize or formally disapprove of certain behaviors

28

Sapir Whorf hypothesis

the way that people understand the world based on their form of language

29

social control

a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms

30

society

people who live in a definable community and who share a culture

31

subcultures

groups that share a specific identification, apart from a society's majority, even as the members exist within a larger society

32

symbols

gestures or objects that have meanings associated with them that are recognized by people who share a culture

33

values

a cultures standard for discerning what is good and just in society

34

xenocentrism

a belief that another culture is superior to one's own