Medical Microbiology

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1

1. Which of the following is a particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom and has no electrical charge?
A) electron
B) neutron
C) element
D) proton
E) isotope

B

2

2. An atom of carbon that has six protons and seven neutrons is an example of a(n)
A) isotope.
B) radioactive isotope.
C) molecule.
D) compound.
E) dalton.

A

3

3. An atom is electrically neutral when
A) the number of electrons equals the number of neutrons.
B) the numbers of its protons, electrons, and neutrons are all equal.
C) it has no extra electrons in its valence shell.
D) the number of protons equals the number of neutrons.
E) the number of electrons equals the number of protons.

E

4

4. Which parts of the atoms interact in a chemical reaction?
A) protons
B) neutrons
C) ions
D) electrons
E) isotopes

D

5

5. All of the following are associated with atomic structure EXCEPT
A) valence.
B) dalton.
C) monomer.
D) electron shell.
E) neutron.

C

6

6. The valence of an atom represents
A) its ability to interact with other atoms.
B) its electronegativity.
C) its radioactivity.
D) its ability to attract electrons.
E) its ability to interact with water.

A

7

7. The type(s) of bond produced when atoms share electrons equally is(are)
A) a nonpolar covalent bond.
B) a hydrogen bond.
C) an ionic bond.
D) a polar covalent bond.
E) polar covalent and ionic bonds.

A

8

8. The type(s) of bond produced when atoms with significantly different electronegativities share electrons is(are)
A) a nonpolar covalent bond.
B) a polar covalent bond.
C) an ionic bond.
D) a hydrogen bond.
E) nonpolar covalent and ionic bonds.

B

9

9. Which of the following types of chemical bonds do carbon atoms generally NOT form?
A) nonpolar covalent bonds
B) polar covalent bonds
C) ionic bonds
D) hydrogen bonds
E) both ionic and hydrogen bonds

E

10

10. All of the following are associated with ionic bonds EXCEPT
A) cations.
B) radioactivity.
C) electrolytes.
D) salts.
E) anions.

B

11

11. Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?
A) electrolytes: anions
B) synthesis: endothermic
C) hydrolysis: hydrogen bonds
D) catabolism: exothermic
E) dehydration: anabolism

C

12

12. Compounds that readily dissociate in water are
A) nonpolar.
B) ionic.
C) polar.
D) either polar or ionic.
E) never polar or ionic.

D

13

13. Which of the following is NOT a property of water?
A) It has a high capacity for heat.
B) It is a product of dehydration synthesis.
C) Many solutes will dissolve in it.
D) It does not interact significantly with other molecules.
E) It has two polar covalent bonds.

D

14

14. An acid dissociates in water to release
A) hydrogen ion(s).
B) cation(s).
C) hydroxyl group(s).
D) anion(s).
E) both anions and hydrogen ions.

E

15

15. The reverse of a dehydration synthesis reaction is a(n) ________ reaction.
A) anabolic
B) exchange
C) hydrolytic
D) endothermic
E) metabolic

C

16

16. Which pH would be alkaline?
A) 7.0
B) 8.0
C) 4.0
D) 1.5
E) 6.5

B

17

17. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of saturated fats?
A) They are usually solid at room temperature.
B) They contain at least one double bond.
C) They are found in animals.
D) Their fatty acids pack tightly together.
E) They are a form of stored energy.

B

18

18. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of phospholipids?
A) They are found in cellular membranes.
B) They can form micelles and bilayers.
C) They contain fatty acids that associate with water.
D) They contain a hydrophilic phosphate "head."
E) They contain two fatty acids and a phosphate functional group.

C

19

19. Organisms use carbohydrates in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A) as a component of cell walls.
B) as a long-term energy source.
C) as a short-term energy source.
D) to keep membranes flexible at low temperatures.
E) as a building block of DNA and RNA molecules.

D

20

20. Fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates are all produced by
A) hydrolytic reactions.
B) dehydration synthesis.
C) exchange reactions.
D) hydrogen bonding.
E) catabolic reactions.

B

21

21. Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?
A) glycogen
B) glucose
C) fructose
D) deoxyribose
E) sucrose

A

22

22. Which of the following statements about proteins is FALSE?
A) They are composed of amino acids.
B) They have multiple levels of structural organization.
C) They can be hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or both.
D) Their primary function is energy storage.
E) They are formed by dehydration synthesis reactions.

D

23

23. All of the following are components of an amino acid EXCEPT
A) a carboxyl group.
B) a pentose group.
C) an amino group.
D) an α-carbon.
E) an R group.

B

24

24. Which of the following is NOT found in proteins?
A) hydrogen bonds
B) peptide bonds
C) purines
D) α-helices
E) disulfide bridges

C

25

25. Hydrogen bonds are found in all of the following EXCEPT
A) between phosphates in ATP.
B) in α-helices.
C) between water molecules.
D) in the DNA double helix between nucleotides.
E) between the R groups of amino acids in proteins.

A

26

26. Tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins involves ________ bonds.
A) hydrogen
B) ionic
C) polar covalent
D) nonpolar covalent
E) ionic, hydrogen, polar, and nonpolar covalent

E

27

27. Which of the following are examples of pyrimidines?
A) uracil and adenine
B) cytosine and guanine
C) thymine and adenine
D) thymine and guanine
E) cytosine and thymine

E

28

28. All of the following bases are found in RNA molecules EXCEPT
A) adenine.
B) thymine.
C) uracil.
D) cytosine.
E) guanine.

B

29

29. The "spine" of the DNA molecule is composed of
A) amino acids.
B) pentoses.
C) phosphates.
D) nitrogenous bases.
E) alternating phosphates and pentoses.

E

30

30. Which of the following would NOT normally be found as a component of a cell's nucleic acids?
A) adenine deoxyribonucleotides
B) thymine deoxyribonucleotides
C) uracil deoxyribonucleotides
D) cytosine ribonucleotides
E) adenine ribonucleotides

C

31

31. All of the following are associated with ATP molecules EXCEPT
A) a long-term energy supply.
B) high-energy bonds.
C) a recyclable energy supply.
D) formation of coenzymes.
E) three phosphate groups.

A

32

32. Which of the following statements concerning nucleic acids is FALSE?
A) Nucleic acid strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases.
B) Not all DNA is double stranded.
C) Some viruses use DNA in their genomes.
D) The nucleic acid polymer is composed of peptide bonds.
E) Cytosine is found in all nucleic acid molecules.

D

33

33. Which of the following is an INCORRECT pairing?
A) primary structure: amino acid sequence
B) secondary structure: disulfide bridges
C) tertiary structure: covalent bonds
D) quaternary structure: two or more polypeptides
E) secondary structure: β-pleated sheets

B

34

34. All of the following are classified as macromolecules EXCEPT
A) lipids.
B) carbohydrates.
C) amino acids.
D) proteins.
E) nucleic acids.

C

35

35. An increase in the pH of a solution by 2 whole numbers represents a change in the number of hydrogen ions by what factor?
A) 2
B) 20
C) 1000
D) 10
E) 100

E

36

36. Plant cell walls are composed of ________ held together by ________.
A) polysaccharides, hydrogen bonds
B) amino acids, peptide bonds
C) disaccharides, hydrophobic interactions
D) fatty acids, polar covalent bonds
E) peptidoglycan, ionic bonds

A

37

37. An amino acid is an example of a:

monomer

38

38. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a:

monomer

39

39. DNA is composed of repeating units of sugars, phosphates and nucleic acids. This is an example of a:

polymer

40

40. Amylose is a(n) __________ carbohydrate.

polymer

41

41. Protein is a:

polymer