Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 1-2 Questions Flashcards
1.53 Label each of the following properties of sodium as either a physical property change or a chemical property.
a. Sodium is a soft metal (cam be cut with a knife)
b. Sodium reacts violently with water to produce hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide.
1.54 Label each of the following properties of sodium as either a physical property or a chemical property
a. when exposed to air, sodium forms a white oxide
b. sodium melts at 98 degrees C
c. The density of sodium metal at 25 degrees C is 0.97 g/cm3
1.55 Label each of the following as either a pure substance or a mixture.
b. table salt (sodium chloride)
1.56 Label each of the following as either a pure substance or a mixture
a. Sucrose (table sugar)
b. orange juice
1.57 Label each of the following as either a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture
a. a soft drink
b. a saline solution
1.58 Label each of the following as either a homogeneous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture
b. vegetable soup
1.59 Classify the matter represented in the following diagram by state and by composition. Draw picture
matter is gaseous. represents a homogeneous mixture
1.60 Classify the matter represented in the following diagram by state and by composition. Draw Picture
1.61 Plant varieties may be distinguished, one from another, by observing properties of their leaves
a. suggest 2 extensive properties of leaves that would be useful in the process
b. suggest 2 intensive properties of leaves that would be useful in the process
a. surface area and mass
b. color and shape
1.62 would you expect that intensive properties or extensive properties would be more useful in distinguishing among plant varieties by inspecting their leaves?
1.63 Mass is the measure of what property of matter?
Mass describes the quantity of matter in an object
1.64 Explain the difference between mass and weight
1.65 Define Length
distance between two points
1.66 What metric unit for length is similar to the English yd?
1.67 How is the metric unit of L defined?`
a liter is the volume occupied by 1000g of water at 4oC
1.68 What English unit of volume is similar to a L?
1.69 Rank the following from shortest to longest length
mm, kn, m
1.70 Rank the following from least to greatest mass
cg, ug Mg
1.71 Determine the temperature reading of the following thermometer to the correct number of significant figures. Draw Picture
1.72 Determine the temperature reading of the following thermometer to the correct number of significant figures. Draw picture
1.73 Define each of the following Terms:
a. precision is a measure of the agreement of replicate results
b. accuracy is the degree of agreement between the true value and measured value
1.74 Define each of the following terms:
1.75 How Many significant figures are contained in each of the following numbers
a. 10.0 b. 0.214 c. 0.120 d. 2.062 e. 10.50 f. 1050
b.3 f. 4
1.76 How many significant figures are contained in each of the following numbers?
a. 3.8x10-3 e, 240
b 5.20x10(2) f. 2.40
1.77 Round the following numbers to 3 significant figures:
a. 3.873 x10-3 d. 24.3387
b. 5.202 x 10-2 e. 240.1
c. 0.002616 f. 2.407
1.78 Round the following numbers to 3 significant figures:
a. 123700 d. 53.2995
b. 0.00286792 e. 16.96
c. 1.421 x 10-3 f. 507.5
1.79 Perform each of the following arithmetic operations, reporting the answer with proper number of significant figures:
a. (23)(657) d. 1157.3-17.812
b. 0.00521+0.236 e. (1.987)(298)/0.0821
1.80 Perform the operations leaving proper number of significant figures
a. (16.0)(0.1879)/45.3 d. 18+52.1
b. (76.32)(1.53)/0.052 e. 58.17-57.79
1.81 Express the following numbers in scientific notation. Using Sig Figs.
a. 12.3 e. 92,000,000
b. 0.0569 f. 0.005280
c. -1527 g. 1.279
d. 0.000000789 h. -531.77
1.82 Express each of the following numbers in decimal notation
a. 3.24x10(3) e. -8.21x10(-2)
b. 1.50x10(4) f. 2.9979x10(8)
c. 4.579x10(-1) g. 1.50x10(0)
d. -6.83x10(5) h. 6.02x10(23)
1.83 The following four measurements were made for an object whose true mass is 4.56g.
4.55g, 4.56g, 4.56g, 4.57g
describe the measurements in terms of their accuracy and their precision
1.84 The following four measurements were made for an object whose true volume is 17.55mL.
18.69 mL, 18.69 mL, 18.70mL, 18.71mL
Describe the measurements in terms of their accuracy and their precision
1.85 Give a reason why the metric system is a more convenient system than the English system of measurement.
1.86 Why is it important to always include units when recording measurements
1.87 Give the abbreviation and meaning of the following metric prefixes
1.88 Fill in the blank with the missing abbreviation and name the prefix.
a. 10(6)m=1____m c. 10(-9)g=1______g
1.89 Write the two conversion factors that can be written for the relationship between ft and in.
1.90 Write the two conversion factors that can be written for the relationship between cm and in.
1.91 Convert 2.0lb to:
a. oz d. mg
b. tons (t) e. dekagrams (dag)
1.92 Convert 5.0 qt to:
a. gal d. mL
b. pints (pt) e. uL
1.93 Convert 3.0 g to:
a. lb d. centigrams (cg)
b. oz e. mg
1.94 Convert 3.0 m to:
a. yd d. cm
b. in e. mm
1.95 Convert 1.50 x 10 (4)ug to mg
1.96 convert 7.5 x 10 (-3) cm to mm
1.97 A typical office space has 144 ft(2) of floor space. Calculate the space in m(2)
1.98 Tire pressure is measure in units of lb/in(2). convert 32lb/in(2) to g/cm(2).
1.99 150LB adult is approximately 9 pt of blood. How many L of blood does the individual have?
1.100 If a drop of blood has a volume of 0.05 mL, how many drops of blood are in an adult described in problem 1.99?
1.101 If a patients temperature is found to be 38.5 degrees C. To what Fahrenheit temperature does this correspond?
1.102 a newborn is 21 in. in length and weighs 6lb 9 oz. Describe the baby in metric units
1.103 Which distance is shorter:
5.0cm or 5.0 in.?
1.104 Which volume is smaller?
50.0 mL or 0.500 L
1.105 Which mass is smaller?
5.0mg or 5.0ug
1.106 Which volume is smaller?
1.0L or 1.0qt
1.107 a new homeowner wished to know the perimeter of his property. He found that the front boundary and back boundary were measured in meters 85m and 95m, respectively. the side boundaries were measured in feet: 435 ft and 515ft.
a. Describe the problem-solving strategy used to determine the perimeter in km.
b. calculate the perimeter in km
1.108 Sally and Gertrude were comparing their weight-loss regimens. Sally started her diet weighing 193 lb. In 1 year she weighed 145 lb. Gertrude started her diet weighing 80kg. at the end of the year she weighed 65kg. who lost the most weight?
a. Describe the problem-solving strategy used to determine who was more successful.
b. calculate the weight lost in lb and kg by Sally and Gertrude
1.109 List 3 major temperature scales
Kelvin, Fahrenheit and Celcius
1.110 Rank the following temperatures from coldest to hottest
zero degrees Celsius, zero degrees Fahrenheit, zero kelvin
1.111 List and define the two subgroups of energy
1.112 Label each of the following statements as true or false.
a. energy can be created and destroyed
b. energy can be converted from electrical energy to light energy
c. conversion of energy from one form to another can occur with 100% efficiency
d. All chemical reactions involve either a gain or loss of energy
1.113 List each of the following as an intensive or extensive property.
1.114 What is the relationship between density and specific gravity
1.115 convert 50.0 degrees F to:
a. degrees C
1.116 Convert -10.0 degrees F to:
a. degrees Celsius
1.117Convert 20 degrees C to
b. degrees F
1.118 Convert 300.0 K to:
1.119 The combustion of a peanut releases 6 kcal of heat. Convert this energy to J.
1.120 the energy available from the world's total petroleum reserve is estimated as 2.0 x 10 (22)J. Convert this energy to kcal.
1.121 Calculate the density of a 3.00 x 10 (2)g object that has a volume of 50.0 mL
1.122 Calculate the density of 50.0g of an isopropyl alcohol-water mixture (commercial rubbing alcohol) that has a volume of 63.6 mL.
1.123 What volume in L, will 8.00 x 10(2)g of air occupy if the density of the air is 1.29g/L
1.124 in question 1.123 you calculated the volume of 8.00 x10(2)g of air with a density of 1.29g/L. The temperature of the air sample was lowered and the density increased to 1.50 g/L. Calculate the new volume of the air sample.
1.125 What is the mass, in g, of a piece of iron that has a volume of 1.50 x 10(2) mL and a density of 7.20g/mL/
1.126 what is the mass of a femur (leg bone) having a volume of 118 cm(3)? the density of the bone is 1.8g/cm(3)
1.127 You are given a piece of wood that is maple, teak, or oak. The piece of wood has a volume of 1.00 x10(2)cm3 and a mass of 98g. The densities of maple, teal, and oak are as follows:
wood Density (g/cm3)
What is the density of the piece of wood?
1.128 The specific gravity of a patient's urine sample is measured to be 1.008. Given that the density of water is 1.000g/mL at 4 degrees C, what is the density of the urine sample?
1.129The density of grain alcohol is 0.789g/mL. Given that the density of water at 4 degrees C is 1.00 g/mL, what is the specific gravity of grain alcohol?
1.130 The density of mercury is 13.6g/mL. If a sample of mercury weighs 272g. what is the volume of the sample in mL?
1.131 You are given 3 bars of metal. Each is labeled with its identity (Lead, uranium, platinum). The lead bar has a mass of 5.0x10(1)g and a volume of 6.36 cm3. The uranium bar has amass of 75g and a volume of 3.97 cm3. The platinum bar has a mass of 2140g and a volume if 1.00 x 10(2) cm3. Which of these metals has the lowest density? Which has the greatest density?
1.132 Refer to problem 1.131. Suppose at each of the bars had the same mass. How could you determine which bar had the lowest density or highest density?
1.133 The density of methanol at 20 degrees C is 0.791 g/mL, What is the volume of a 10.0g sample of methanol?
1.134 The density of methanol at 20 Degrees C is 0.791 g/mL. What is the mass of a 50.0-mL sample of methanol?