5 Radreview Biological (102)

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1

The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a long period of time, the effect

A will be greater than if it is delivered all at one time

B will be less than if it is delivered all at one time

C has no relation to how it is delivered in time

D solely depends on the radiation quality

B will be less than if it is delivered all at one time

2

Sources of natural background radiation contributing to whole-body radiation dose include

dental x-rays
terrestrial radionuclides
internal radionuclides

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

3

In the production of Bremsstrahlung radiation
A
the incident photon ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron
B
the incident photon is deflected, with resulting energy loss
C
the incident electron ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron
D
the incident electron is deflected, with resulting energy loss

D the incident electron is deflected, with resulting energy loss

4

What is used to account for the differences in tissue sensitivity to ionizing radiation when determining effective dose E?

Tissue weighting factors (W t )
Radiation weighting factors (W r )
Absorbed dose

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 only

5

Diagnostic x-radiation may be correctly described as
A
low energy, low LET
B
low energy, high LET
C
high energy, low LET
D
high energy, high LET

A low energy, low LET

6

Somatic effects resulting from radiation exposure can

have possible consequences on the exposed individual
have possible consequences on future generations
cause temporary infertility

A
1 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 3 only

7

Which interaction between x-ray photons and matter involves partial transfer of the incident photon energy to the involved atom?
A
Photoelectric effect
B
Compton scattering
C
Coherent scattering
D
Pair production

B Compton scattering

8

Factors that contribute to the amount of scattered radiation produced include

radiation quality
field size
grid ratio

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

9
card image

The interaction between x-ray photons and matter pictured in Figure A is associated with

Figure A.

1.
high-energy x-ray photons.
2.
ionization.
3.
characteristic radiation.
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
2 and 3 only

D 2 and 3 only

10

Stochastic effects of radiation include
A
blood changes
B
genetic alterations
C
cataractogenesis
D
reduced fertility

B
genetic alterations

11

All the following radiation-exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose–response relationship except
A
skin erythema
B
hematologic depression
C
radiation lethality
D
leukemia

D leukemia

12

What is used to account for the differences in ionizing characteristics of various radiations, when determining their effect on biologic material?
1. Radiation weighting factors ( W r )
2. Tissue weighting factors ( W t )
3. Absorbed dose
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 only

13

The law of Bergonié and Tribondeau states that cells are more radiosensitive if they are

highly proliferative
highly differentiated
immature

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 1 and 3 only

14

Which of the following types of radiation is (are) considered electromagnetic?

X-ray
Gamma
Beta

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B
1 and 2 only

15

Which of the following is (are) possible long-term somatic effects of radiation exposure?

Blood changes
Cataractogenesis
Embryologic effects

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

16

The dose of radiation that will cause a noticeable skin reaction is referred to as the
A
LET
B
SSD
C
SED
D
SID

C SED

17

Which of the following radiation exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose-response relationship?
1. Skin erythema
2. Hematologic depression
3. Lethality
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

18

Which of the following has(have) been identified as source(s) of radon exposure?

Indoors, in houses
Smoking cigarettes
Radiology departments

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

19

The photoelectric effect is more likely to occur with

absorbers having a high Z number
high-energy incident photons
positive contrast media

A
1 and 2 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B
1 and 3 only

20

Stochastic effects of radiation are those that

have a threshold
may be described as “all-or-nothing” effects
are late effects

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C
2 and 3 only

21
card image

Which of the dose–response curves seen in Figure 3–4 represents possible genetic effects of ionizing radiation?

A
Dose–response curve A
B
Dose–response curve B
C
Dose–response curve C
D
None of these

A Dose–response curve A

22

The principal late effects of ionizing radiation on humans include

local tissue damage
genetic effects
malignant disease

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

23

In radiation protection, the product of absorbed dose and the correct modifying factor (rad × QF) is used to determine
A
roentgen (C/kg)
B
rem (Sv)
C
curie (Cu)
D
radiation quality

B rem (Sv)

24

Early symptoms of acute radiation syndrome include

leukopenia
nausea and vomiting
cataracts

A
1 and 2 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
2 and 3 only

A 1 and 2 only

25

LET is best defined as

a method of expressing radiation quality
a measure of the rate at which radiation energy is transferred to soft tissue
absorption of polyenergetic radiation

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

26

Which of the following cells is the least radiosensitive?
A
Myelocytes
B
Myocytes
C
Megakaryocytes
D
Erythroblast

B Myocytes

27

Which of the following types of adult tissues is (are) relatively insensitive to radiation exposure?
1. Muscle tissue
2. Nerve tissue
3. Epithelial tissue
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

28

If 600 rad or more is received as a whole-body dose in a short period of time, certain symptoms will occur; these are referred to as
A
short-term effects.
B
long-term effects.
C
lethal dose.
D
acute radiation syndrome.

D
acute radiation syndrome.

29

Which of the following dose-response curve characteristics represent genetic and some somatic responses to radiation?
1. Linear
2. Nonthreshold
3. Sigmoidal
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

30
card image

Which of the dose-response curves pictured in Figure A illustrate(s) a linear threshold dose effect?

Figure A.

1.
Curve number 1
2.
Curve number 2
3.
Curve number 3

A
1 only

B
3 only

C
2 and 3 only

D
1, 2, and 3

B 3 only

31

Which of the following is (are) considered especially radiosensitive tissues?

Bone marrow
Intestinal crypt cells
Erythroblasts

A
1 and 2 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

32

Which of the following anomalies is (are) possible if an exposure dose of 40 rad (400 mGy) were delivered to a pregnant uterus in the third week of pregnancy?

Skeletal anomaly
Organ anomaly
Neurologic anomaly

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

33
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the dose–response curve shown in Figure 3–6?The quantity of radiation is directly related to the dose received.
No threshold is required for effects to occur.
A minimum amount of radiation is required for manifestation of effects.

A
1 only

B
1 and 2 only

C
1 and 3 only

D
2 and 3 only

C 1 and 3 only

34

The skin response to radiation exposure that appears as hair loss is known as
A
dry desquamation
B
moist desquamation
C
erythema
D
epilation

D epilation

35

If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a short period of time, its effect
A
will be greater than if it were delivered over a long period of time.
B
depends solely on the distance factor.
C
has no relation to how it is delivered in time.
D
depends solely on the radiation quantity.

A
will be greater than if it were delivered over a long period of time.

36

The interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule that is most likely to occur is the
A
direct effect
B
indirect effect
C
target effect
D
random effect

B
indirect effect

37

The target theory applies to
A
spermatagonia
B
oocytes
C
lymphocytes
D
DNA molecules

D DNA molecules

38

The classifications of acute radiation syndrome include all the following except
A
central nervous system
B
gastrointestinal
C
neonatal
D
hematologic

C neonatal

39

Which of the following interactions between x-ray photons and matter is most responsible for patient dose?
A
The photoelectric effect
B
Compton scatter
C
Classic scatter
D
Thompson scatter

A The photoelectric effect

40

Which of the following are considered most radiosensitive?
A
Lymphocytes
B
Ova
C
Neurons
D
Myocytes

A
Lymphocytes

41

For exposure to 1 rad of each of the following ionizing radiations, which would result in the greatest dose to the individual?
A
External source of 1-MeV x-rays
B
External source of diagnostic x-rays
C
Internal source of alpha particles
D
External source of beta particles

C
Internal source of alpha particles

42

Which interaction between x-ray photons and matter results in total absorption of the incident photon?
A
Photoelectric effect
B
Compton scattering
C
Coherent scattering
D
Pair production

A
Photoelectric effect

43

Which of the following expresses the gonadal dose that, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same total genetic effect on that population as the actual doses received by each of the individuals?
A
Genetically significant dose
B
Somatically significant dose
C
Maximum permissible dose
D
Lethal dose

A
Genetically significant dose

44

What is the relationship between LET and RBE?
A
As LET increases, RBE increases.
B
As LET increases, RBE decreases.
C
As LET decreases, RBE increases.
D
There is no direct relationship between LET and RBE.

A As LET increases, RBE increases.

45

Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity in the adult human?
A
Nerve cells
B
Muscle cells
C
Spermatids
D
Lymphocytes

D
Lymphocytes

46

The term used to describe the gradual decrease in exposure rate as an x-ray beam passes through matter is
A
attenuation
B
absorption
C
scattered radiation
D
secondary radiation

A
attenuation

47

What is the effect on RBE as LET increases?
A
As LET increases, RBE increases.
B
As LET increases, RBE decreases.
C
As LET increases, RBE stabilizes.
D
LET has no effect on RBE.

A
As LET increases, RBE increases.

48

The dose–response curve that appears to be valid for genetic and some somatic effects is the

linear
nonlinear
nonthreshold

A
1 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 3 only

49

Late radiation-induced somatic effects include

thyroid cancers
cataractogenesis
skin cancers

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

50

Which of the following defines the gonadal dose that, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same total genetic effect on that population as the actual doses received by each of the individuals?
A
Genetically significant dose
B
Somatically significant dose
C
Maximum permissible dose
D
Lethal dose

A Genetically significant dose

51

How are LET and biologic response related?
A
They are inversely related.
B
They are directly related.
C
They are related in a reciprocal fashion.
D
They are unrelated.

B
They are directly related.

52

Which of the following statements regarding the human gonadal cells is (are) true?

The female oogonia reproduce only during fetal life.
The male spermatogonia reproduce continuously.
Both male and female stem cells reproduce only during fetal life.

A
1 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 2 only
D
3 only

C
1 and 2 only

53

In 1906, Bergonié and Tribondeau theorized that undifferentiated cells are highly radiosensitive. Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of undifferentiated cells?

Young cells
Highly mitotic cells
Precursor cells

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D
1, 2, and 3

54

Which of the following terms refers to the period between conception and birth?
A
Gestation
B
Congenital
C
Neonatal
D
In vitro

A
Gestation

55
card image

The interaction between x-ray photons and matter shown in Figure 3–1 is associated withtotal energy transfer from photon to electron
an outer-shell electron
Compton scatter

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
2 and 3 only

A 1 only

56

Biologic material is most sensitive to radiation exposure under which of the following conditions?
A
Anoxic
B
Hypoxic
C
Oxygenated
D
Deoxygenated

C
Oxygenated

57

Examples of stochastic effects of radiation exposure include

radiation-induced malignancy
genetic effects
leukemia

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

58

The symbols 130/56 Ba and 138/56 Ba are examples of which of the following?
A
Isotopes
B
Isobars
C
Isotones
D
Isomers

A Isotopes

59

Which of the following is (are) considered long-term somatic effect(s) of exposure to ionizing radiation?

Life-span shortening
Carcinogenesis
Cataractogenesis

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D
1, 2, and 3

60

Which of the following radiation-induced conditions is most likely to have the longest latent period?
A
Leukemia
B
Temporary infertility
C
Erythema
D
Acute radiation lethality

A
Leukemia

61

Biologic material is least sensitive to irradiation under which of the following conditions?
A
Anoxic
B
Hypoxic
C
Oxygenated
D
Hyperbaric

A Anoxic

62

The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a large quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a short period of time, the effect
A
will be greater than if it were delivered in increments
B
will be less than if it were delivered in increments
C
has no relation to how it is delivered in time
D
solely depends on the radiation quality

A will be greater than if it were delivered in increments

63

Which type of dose–response relationship represents radiation-induced leukemia and genetic effects?
A
Linear, threshold
B
Nonlinear, threshold
C
Linear, nonthreshold
D
Nonlinear, nonthreshold

C Linear, nonthreshold

64

Which of the following tissues or organs is the most radiosensitive?
A
Rectum
B
Esophagus
C
Small bowel
D
Central nervous system (CNS)

C Small bowel

65

What is (are) the major effect(s) of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) irradiation?

Malignant disease
Chromosome aberration
Cell death

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

66

Which of the following is (are) used to account for the differences in tissue characteristics when determining effective dose to biologic material?

Tissue weighting factors (W t )
Radiation weighting factors (W r )
Absorbed dose

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

A 1 only

67

Types of secondary radiation include1. scattered.

2. leakage.

3. primary.
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

68

Examples of late effects of ionizing radiation on humans include

leukemia
local tissue damage
malignant disease

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

69

Major effect(s) of irradiation of macromolecules include(s)

point lesions
cross-linking
main-chain scission

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D
1, 2, and 3

70

Occupational exposure received by the radiographer is mostly from
A
Compton scatter
B
the photoelectric effect
C
coherent scatter
D
pair production

A Compton scatter

71

The most radiosensitive portion of the GI tract is the
A
upper esophagus
B
stomach
C
small bowel
D
cecum and ascending colon

C small bowel

72

Somatic effects of radiation refer to effects that are manifested
A
in the descendants of the exposed individual
B
during the life of the exposed individual
C
in the exposed individual and his or her descendants
D
in the reproductive cells of the exposed individual

B during the life of the exposed individual

73

Which of the following cell types has the lowest radiosensitivity?
A
Nerve cells
B
Muscle cells
C
Spermatids
D
Lymphocytes

A Nerve cells

74

Irradiation of macromolecules in vitro can result in

main-chain scission
cross-linking
point lesions

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

75

Possible responses to irradiation in utero include

spontaneous abortion
congenital anomalies
childhood malignancies

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3 only

76

The skin response to radiation exposure, which appears as reddening of the irradiated skin area, is known as
A
dry desquamation
B
moist desquamation
C
erythema
D
epilation

C erythema

77

The photoelectric effect is an interaction between an x-ray photon and
A
an inner-shell electron
B
an outer-shell electron
C
a nucleus
D
another photon

A an inner-shell electron

78

Which interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule involves formation of a free radical?
A
Direct effect
B
Indirect effect
C
Target effect
D
Random effect

B Indirect effect

79
card image

Which of the dose–response curve(s) shown in Figure 3–2 illustrate(s) a linear threshold response to radiation exposure?Dose–response curve A
Dose–response curve B
Dose–response curve C

A
1 only

B
2 only

C
1 and 2 only

D
2 and 3 only

B 2 only

80

The radiation dose to an individual depends on which of the following?

Type of tissue interaction(s)
Quantity of radiation
Biologic differences

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
1 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

81

Which of the following types of adult tissue is (are) comparatively insensitive to effects of ionizing radiation?

Epithelial tissue
Nerve tissue
Muscle tissue

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

C
2 and 3 only

82

What is the term used to describe x-ray photon interaction with matter and the transference of part of the photon's energy to matter?
A
Absorption
B
Scattering
C
Attenuation
D
Divergence

B Scattering

83

How do fractionation and protraction affect radiation dose effects?

They reduce the effect of radiation exposure.
They permit cellular repair.
They allow tissue recovery.

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D
1, 2, and 3

84

Which acute radiation syndrome requires the largest exposure before any effects become apparent?
A
Hematopoietic
B
Gastrointestinal
C
Central nervous system (CNS)
D
Skeletal

C
Central nervous system (CNS)

85

Linear energy transfer (LET) may be best described as
A
the amount of energy delivered per distance traveled in tissue.
B
the unit of absorbed dose.
C
radiation equivalent man.
D
radiation absorbed dose.

A
the amount of energy delivered per distance traveled in tissue.

86

If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body in a short period of time, its effect
A
will be greater than if it were delivered over a long period of time.
B
will be less than if it were delivered over a long period of time.
C
has no relation to how it is delivered in time.
D
is solely dependent on the radiation quality.

A
will be greater than if it were delivered over a long period of time.

87

Which of the following contributes most to patient dose?
A
The photoelectric effect
B
Compton scatter
C
Classical scatter
D
Thompson scatter

A
The photoelectric effect

88

Irradiation of water molecules within the body and their resulting breakdown is termed
A
epilation
B
radiolysis
C
proliferation
D
repopulation

B
radiolysis

89

The symbols 130/56 Ba and 138/56 Ba are examples of which of the following?
A
Isotopes
B
Isobars
C
Isotones
D
Isomers

A Isotopes

90
card image

Which of the dose–response curves shown in Figure 6–2 illustrate(s) illustrates a linear relationship between dose and response?Curve number 1
Curve number 2
Curve number 3

A
1 only

B
2 only

C
1 and 3 only

D
1, 2, and 3

C 1 and 3 only

91

The effect of ionizing radiation on tissue depends on which of the following?

Type of tissue interaction(s)
Amount of interactions
Biologic differences

A
1 and 2 only
B
1 and 3 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D
1, 2, and 3

92

Isotopes are atoms that have the same
A
mass number but a different atomic number
B
atomic number but a different mass number
C
mass number but a different neutron number
D
atomic number and mass number

B
atomic number but a different mass number

93

The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a long period of time, the effect
A
will be greater than if it were delivered all at one time
B
will be less than if it were delivered all at one time
C
has no relation to how it is delivered in time
D
depends solely on the radiation quality

B
will be less than if it were delivered all at one time

94

Late or long-term effects of radiation exposure are generally represented by which of the following dose-response curves?
A
Linear threshold
B
Linear nonthreshold
C
Nonlinear threshold
D
Nonlinear nonthreshold

B
Linear nonthreshold

95

Which of the following factors can affect the amount or the nature of radiation damage to biologic tissue?

Radiation quality
Absorbed dose
Size of irradiated area

A
1 only
B
2 only
C
1 and 2 only
D
1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

96

What is likely to occur if 25 rad is accidentally delivered to a recently fertilized ovum?
A
Skeletal anomalies
B
CNS anomalies
C
Spontaneous abortion
D
Childhood malignancy

C
Spontaneous abortion

97

Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity?
A
Nerve cells
B
Muscle cells
C
Spermatids
D
Lymphocytes

D
Lymphocytes

98

Late effects of radiation, whose incidence is dose related and for which there is no threshold dose, are referred to as
A
nonstochastic
B
stochastic
C
chromosomal aberration
D
hematologic depression

B
stochastic

99

The x-ray interaction with matter that is responsible for the majority of scattered radiation reaching the image receptor (IR) is
A
the photoelectric effect
B
Compton scatter
C
classical scatter
D
Thompson scatter

B
Compton scatter

100

Which of the following ionizing radiations is described as having an RBE of 1.0?
A
10 MeV protons
B
5 MeV alpha particles
C
Diagnostic x-rays
D
Fast neutrons

C Diagnostic x-rays

101

Sources of natural background radiation exposure include
1. the food we eat.
2. air travel.
3. medical and dental x-rays.
A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

102

The late effects of radiation are considered to

have no threshold dose.
be directly related to dose.
occur within hours of exposure.

A
1 only
B
1 and 2 only
C
2 and 3 only
D
1, 2, and 3

B
1 and 2 only