##### Stat

Population

[_______] is the group of individual persons, objects, or items that one wishes to better understand certain characteristics about and from which samples are taken for statistical measurement.

Census

[_______] is a survey of every individual in the population and the information gathered is called the population data (N) as opposed to representative of the population, that is, sample data (n).

Description

[________] statistics involve methods of organizing and summarizing information (data) and presenting it numerically or visually (graphically).

Inferential

[_________] statistics involves methods of analyzing and interpreting descriptive statistics to draw conclusions regarding a particular characteristic in the population with a certain degree of assurance based on preset level of significance and specified assumptions,

Quantitative

The length of time between full moons.

Quantitative

The number of products shipped in a year.

Qualitative

The colors of paint manufactured in the United States

Qualitative

The gender of the subjects participating in clinical trials

Quantitative

The temperature of a cup of coffee.

Quantitative

Political association: Democrat, Republican or Independent.

Instrument

An [_________] is any means which information is gathered or measured such as an exam, survey or other rulers such as barometer, thermometer, etc.

Parameter

A [_________] is a numerical measure that describes the outlined characteristic of the population such as central tendencies (mean, median, mode and proportion), spread (range, variance and standard deviation) and shape (symmetric and skewed). In general, when a specific parameter is not specified, the lowercase Greek letter Theta is used to denote a population parameter.

Statistic

[_________] is a numerical measure that yields an estimate of a population parameter. That is, a numerical measure that uses the data from the sample to estimate the outlined characteristic of the population.

Measure

[_________] involves any standard of comparison, estimation or judgment, property of an individual given a numerical value; a quantity, a count, a degree, rate or proportion

Discrete

A [________] measure such that the set of possible observed outcomes are separate, distinct and finite such as a count. Discrete measures are such that the outcomes can be enumerated: one, two, three, etc.

Continuous

A [_________] measure is such that the set of possible observed outcomes are infinite and uncountable. Continuous measures are dense; that is, between any two values (outcomes) there exist another value (outcome) such as a mean or rate.

Validity

[_________] refers to the degree of accuracy to which a study reflects the specific concept or characteristic that the analyst or researcher is attempting to measure.

Bias

[________] is a consistent deviation of the statistics to one side of the parameter.

Variability

[__________] measures the degree of dispersion within a given data set; some common measures of dispersion include range, mean (average) deviation, standard deviation, variance, interquartile range, and mean difference.

Reliable

[__________] refers to the accuracy and precision of the actual measuring instrument or procedure. A reliable measure is a (precise) measurement such that the random error is small.

Nominal

- The name of a subject
- The blood type of a patient
- The gender of an individual
- The eye color of an individual

Ratio

- The age of a subject
- The height of a subject
- The weight of a patient

Interval

The temperature of a cup of coffee

Ordinal

A five-point Likert Scale

Random sample

A [_____ _____] is a sample of size n taken from a population of size N in such a way that each individual observed has an equally likely chance of being selected.

Systematic

[________] sampling is a sample such that every kth individual or item is measured.

Cluster

[__________] sampling is such that groups are selected based on pre-existing groups such as by region or zip code.

Stratified

[__________] sampling is such that individuals are first grouped by specific characteristics such as gender and then samples are taken from each group or strata.

Observationa;

[__________] sampling is such that individuals are selected based upon ease of access. Such sampling techniques are prone to bias.

Experimental

An [__________] study is an experiment designed to be observed with interference from the observer in that specific treatments are applied to the individuals, in an effort to measure differences in the subject respose.

Treatment

A [__________] is any condition set forth that is applied to the individual or subject in an effort to determine differences among a variety of treatment as compared to each other or a control group

Control

A [__________] group is a group created for sake of comparison. This group can be one of the treatment groups or a group that receives a false treatment called a Placebo.

Placebo effect

The [_______ ______] occurs when a subject receives a false treatment (such as a sugar pill) or no treatment, but (incorrectly) believes he or she is in fact receiving treatment and responds favorably.

Confidentiality

[__________] is when personal information is given, but not shared. Only the statistical summaries are made available to other organizations or persons involved in the study.

Informed consent

[_____ _____] is when the individual is both informed of the ramifications involved in the study and gives consent to participate, knowing of such things such as side effects.

Simulation

[__________] is the imitation of a natural process using general characteristics behaviors in an effort to mimic or model the natural system.