The Language of Anatomy

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Chapter One Terminology and Questions
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1

Gross Anatomy

The study of body structures visible to the naked eye

2

Anatomical Position

The human body is erect with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides of the palms facing forward

3

Axial

Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body

4

Appendicular

Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis

5

Superior

Structures always appear above other structures

6

Inferior

Structures always appear below other structures

7

Anterior

Structures that face forward - the face, chest, and abdomen

8

Posterior

Structures that are toward the backside of the body

9

Medial

Toward the midline

10

Lateral

Away from the midline

11

Cephalad

(cranial)

Toward the head

12

Caudal

Toward the tail

13

Dorsal

Backside

14

Ventral

Belly side

15

Proximal

Nearer the trunk or attached end

16

Distal

Farther from the trunk or point of attachment

17

Superficial

Toward or at the body surface

18

Deep

Away from the body surface

19

The wrist is to the hand

Proximal

20

The trachea (windpipe) _________________ is to the spine

Anterior

21

The brain__________________ is to the spinal cord

Superior

22

The kidneys are ______________ to the liver

Posterior

23

The nose is ____________ to the check bones

Medial

24

The thumb is ___________ to the ring finger

Lateral

25

The thorax is _________ to the abdomen

Superior

26

the skin is _________ to the skeleton

Superficial

27

Section

Performed to observe internal structures

28

Sagittal Plane

Runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts

29

Median or Mid-sagittal Plane

Dividing the body into equal parts, right down the midline of the body.

30

Frontal Plane (Coronal Plane)

A longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts

31

Transverse Plane

Runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

32

Cross Sections

Organs are sectioned along the transverse plane

33

Dorsal Cavity

Includes the Cranial Cavity and the Vertebral Cavity

34

Ventral Cavity

Includes the Thoracic Cavity, Abdominopelvic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity and Pelvic Cavity

35

The most superior cavity in the Dorsal Cavity

Cranial Cavity (brain)

36

The most superior cavity in the Ventral Cavity is the

Thoracic Cavity

37

The walls of the Ventral Cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs located in the cavity are covered with and exceedingly thin, double-layered membrane called?

Serosa or Serous Membrane

38

The part of the membrane lining the cavity walls is referred to as

Parietal Serosa

39

Covering the external surface of the organs and runs continuous with the parietal Serosa

Visceral Serosa

40

The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs

Peritoneum

41

Encloses the lungs

Pleura

42

Around the heart

Pericardium

43

What organs are found in the left upper quadrant

Stomach, spleen, left lobe of liver, body of the pancreas, left kidney and adrenal gland, parts of the transverse and descending colon

44

What organs are found in the right upper quadrant

•Liver, Gall bladder with biliary tree, Duodenum, Head of pancreas, Right kidney and adrenal gland, Hepatic flexure of colon.

45

What organ is divided into identical halves by the medial plane

Urinary Bladder

46

The centermost region, includes the umbilicus

Umbilical Region

47

Immediately superior to the umbilical region; overlies most of the stomach

Epigastric Region

48

Inferior to the umbilical region; encompasses the pubic area

Hypogastric (pubic) Region

49

Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones

Iliac or Inguinal Regions

50

Between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones; lateral to the umbilical region

Lumbar Region

51

Flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs

Hypochondriac Regions

52

Contains the tongue and the teeth and is continuous to the digestive tube, which opens to the exterior at the anus

Oral Cavity

53

Located within and posterior to the nose; part of the passages of the respiratory system

Nasal Cavity

54

Houses the eyes and present them in an anterior position

Orbital Cavity

55

These cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ear

Middle Ear Cavities

56

Enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body

Synovial Cavities